Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: #2969b0; font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: #2969b0;">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2616-9916 Application of Lean System Principles in Healthcare Services Using Arena Simulation <p>This research aims to apply lean principles to the Emergency Department (ED) at Sheikh Zayed Hospital. Lean techniques are used in order to eliminate waste, waits and increased patient satisfaction. Lean defines the wastes but not identify which waste should be eliminated for this reason Arena 14.00 Rockwell simulation software used to analyze the ED performance. Patient's flow chart was created to study the total duration of patients stay in the ED, the waiting time and the utilization of resources based on the lean principles approach. The results identified and concluded from simulation model were as the follows, the patient flow time was (65) minute for each patient (total time that patient spent from the beginning of his entry into the ED until he discharged), while patient throughput in morning shift about (241) patient (the number of patients attending the department during morning hours). On the other hand, the utilization ratio of doctors, nurses, receptionists were (83 %, 13 %, and 95 %) respectively. This is demonstrating the applicability and effectiveness of lean principles to ED processes using the simulation model as a pre-implementation tool for improvements in health care sectors.&nbsp;</p> Dhuha Kadhim Ismayyir Aseel Jameel Haleel Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 1 7 Transformation Towards Self-Built Architecture <p>The concept of transformation has been invested in architecture using bio-simulation as a means to produce architecture that responds to different influences. In a similar way, the building transforms the behavior of living organisms in its adaptation to environmental influences during the construction of its structure. The need to clarify the concept and approach to the transition towards self-construction architecture, which expresses the goal of research in building a theoretical framework to study the research problem and extracted from the various design and implementation methods in architectural projects and to reach a number of key and secondary vocabulary and applied to selected projects and conduct measurement. Using mechanics of growth and manufacturing using advanced digital materials is the future orientation of<br>architecture to be self-construct.</p> Faten Yaseen Ali Safaa Al-Deen Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 8 28 An Attempt to Find Suitable Parameters for Coagulation-Flocculation Processes for the Treatment of Water <p>Water turbidity is considered as an important physical parameter of water quality. It is a good indicator for assessing the required treatment for the drinking water. In the present study, a standard jar tests were conducted to obtain the most suitable parameters for the design of coagulation-flocculation process. Results proved that the best rapid mixing time (t<sub>1</sub>), slow mixing time (t<sub>2</sub>), and settling time (t<sub>3</sub>) are 1, 50 and 60 min respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of turbidity were 99.31, 98.56 and 94.72% at t<sub>1</sub>,&nbsp; t<sub>2</sub> and t<sub>3</sub> equal to&nbsp; 5, 50 and 60 min respectively, with pH values ranged from 3.7 to 8.9. The measured values of water turbidity removal perecentage were represented using an artificial neural network (ANN) technique and the results signified that there is a remarkable agreement between experimental and predicted values with coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) and root mean squared error (RMSE) equal to 0.932 and 0.5501 respectively.</p> Jabbar H. Al-Baidhani Ayad H. Fasal Nassrin J. Al-Mansori Lamya Shaker Fadel Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 29 41 Robustness of Modulation Formats Technique to Four Wave Mixing Crosstalk Under 80 Gbps Data Rate. <p>Four wave mixing (FWM) in optical fibers is an undesirable effect to an optical transmission system that can cause a severe limitation in the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and reduces the system performance. Within this paper, the normal intensity of RZ robustness modulation and the Modified-Duobinary-Return–Zero modulation (MDRZ) on FWM was investigated. In addition, the performance of the system under the fiber length variation effect was evaluated under the impact of (80) Gbps data rate for both types of modulation format. The results showed that the RZ modulation introduces a minimum (FWM) power of (-54) dBm at (70) kms fiber length, while MDRZ offers FWM power of (-44) dBm at the exactly same fiber length, In-term of the performance of the system at channel 4, a minimum BER was noticed in normal RZ modulation which equals to&nbsp;&nbsp; 2.27´10 - 43 at (-35.31) dBm received power. However, the BER was 4.98´10-15 at the same received power and channel, in the existence of MDRZ modulation format. The finding reveals the progress of RZ modulation in reducing the FWM crosstalk and enhances the WDM system performance even with the impact of high data rates.</p> Noora Salim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 42 49 The Experimentally Studying of Solid Desiccant Wheel Performance Combined with the System of Air Conditioning <p>The aim of this study was to study the performance of the system of solid desiccant dehumidification to decrease the latent load on cooling coil for the system of air-conditioning and advance the thermal comfort, thus reduce the energy consumption. Rotary desiccant wheel contains a silica gel as a solid moisture absorbent material has been utilized in this study. The wheel was a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 20 cm. The wheel cross sectional area is divided into two parts in aspect ratio. The large part represent dehumidification or absorption process, in this section moisture is removed from the humid air by the silica gel. While the other part represent desorption or regeneration process in this section moisture was absorbed from the humid air by the gel of silica in the first process will be removed from it. The experimental results demonstrates that the utilizing of the desiccant wheel will reduce significantly the thermal load on the cooling coil by reducing the latent load of the passing of humid air respectively via the wheel and the cooling coil</p> Zainab M. Salih Abdulsalam D.M.Hassen Amer Majeed.Al-Dabagh Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 50 59 New Model for Passive Vibration Control of Cantilever Beams Using Two Patches of Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite Tubes <p>Flexible Matrix Composite (F<sup>2</sup>MC) tubes are emerging technologies, which can provide lightweight, compact vibration control when attached to a vibrating structure. This work presents a new model for solving a problem of vibrations in cantilever beams with attaching F<sup>2</sup>MC tubes as patches that provide passive vibration control.&nbsp; Mathematical model of the compound system of patches of F<sup>2</sup>MC tubes integrated on the beam was derived. The governing equations depend on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Lekhnitskii’s theory of elasticity. This study examined new model’s performance for damping with variation in tube size; bonding position of the patches on the beam in two different cases: &nbsp;on the beam through changing the distance between two them; one patch above and the other under the beam. Analytical results demonstrate that the proper tuning the size of tubes as a function of inner layer radius; and integration points are basic parameters for passive vibration control. They achieve reductions in response amplitude at the first vertical bending mode effectively.</p> Shireen O. Mohammad Nazhad A. Hussain Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 60 78 Requirements for Functional Integration in the Design of Train Stations <p>Train stations are an important part of modern urban history. Large stations have helped to form the public image of the city in which they are located. Train stations are important distribution areas and exchanges where different types of transport are connected. It is a meeting place for people, commercial, recreational and cultural centers, due to the neglect and deterioration of local stations, especially with regard to the functional aspects in terms of providing the necessary amenities, movement and waiting, and weak in achieving the aspects of sustainability in the design of these stations, which leads to the atrophy of their effectiveness. The importance of research to work on the development of these stations and revitalization to contribute to the performance of its effectiveness in an integrated manner and to meet the needs of different travelers and encourage them to use public transport, Therefore, many studies have been discussed that dealt with the functional aspects of the design of train stations implicitly or majorly, Therefore, many studies have been discussed that dealt with the functional aspects of the design of train stations implicitly or majorly, but these studies were characterized by plurality and inclusiveness in the introduction of design treatments. Thus, the research problem of "the need to find a comprehensive theoretical concept of functional integration requirements in the design of local train stations" The aim of the research is to "develop a comprehensive theoretical conception of the requirements of functional integration in the design of local train stations."</p> Ammar kareem Dhumad Abdullah Saadoon Salman Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 79 93 Performance of Activated Ricinus Communis Leaves for Degradation Oily Wastewater from Aqueous Solution <p>In this work, <em>Ricinus</em> <em>Communis</em> leaves used as adsorbent to eliminate dissolved oil in oil-water emulsion, the adsorbent was used in activated state, the influence of different parameters like initial oil concentration, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were examined in this study. The particle size used was (300 - 150 micron), at (pH &lt; 2), 200 rpm. and adsorbent concentration of 400 mg/L, The oil uptake increased from 78 % to 88% for oil concentration of 2000 mg/L by using natural and activated respectively,&nbsp; the study was characterized by FTIR, SEM, and BET tests. FTIR test. Activated adsorbent proved good capability of adsorption aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Isotherm study had used to understand the mechanism of adsorption. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm were fitted very well&nbsp; to describe the adsorption resulting by activated adsorbent, this study also characterized by kinetic models, Pseudo second order was the best fitted model for adsorption by adsorbent.</p> Wisam Shamkhi Jaber Abeer Ibrahim Alwared Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 94 107 Holy Shrines From An Engineering Perspective - A Case Study In Al-Najaf And Karbala <p>The study dealt with the study of the holy shrines in Al-Najaf and Karbala from a geometrical viewpoint, where the development of these thresholds has been studied historically, as well as the most important structural and architectural features of these thresholds and the work of the current expansions to cope with the increase in the volume of worshipers and visitors. The construction works were characterized by high quality and efficiency in terms of style Construction and selection of structural materials as well as the sustainability of construction. The volume of expenses disbursed to these works is not small and it comes in total donations from individuals or institutions from inside and outside Iraq.</p> <p>Through this study it becomes clear that the role of worship in the holy shrines grows and evolves over time to keep pace with the urban development and the increase in the size of the worshipers and visitors, and not to maintain their identity, size and traditional forms With some of the main features of the dome and the minaret remain unchanged.</p> Laith Sadiq Al-Asadi Mustafa Ayad Mohsin Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 108 123 Effect of Nano Fuel Additives on the Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fed with Biodiesel Blended Fuel <p>A Numerical analysis for the effect of different Nano particles concentrations on the diesel engine characteristics fired with biodiesel blended fuel is investigated in the work. The simulation software Diesel-rk has been used in this work. The biodiesel under focus is castor methyl ester (CME) which is derived from castor oil via transesterification process. The impact of Nano particles is studied by using three doses of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (25, 50, 100 ppm) mixed with B20% CME which is confirmed from previous studies as the best compromise ratio. Generally it's found that with use of Nano particles along with biodiesel fuel, the cylinder pressure, delay period, combustion temperature decreases. Noticeable enhancements in the brake thermal efficiency and fuel consumption have been recorded.&nbsp; The results reported dramatic reductions in smoke values, NOx emissions as well as Particulate matter (PM), hence this way can fight trade-off relation (PM-NOx). The findings showed, best concentration of Nano particles was 25 ppm as no dramatic effect was observed beyond this dose. The validity of the numerical results is checked out with other experimental results at the same condition of operation.</p> Mohammed S. Edam Mohamed F. Al – Dawody Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 124 141 The Strategy of Imitating Traditions and Customs in Contemporary Architextile <p>Culture is one of the influences on the products of architecture. It is common to say that architecture is a mirror of culture, Language, gestures and intellectual products are influenced by culture, The customs, traditions of a given society play an important role in some products architecture, These hidden aspects of physical products are subject to the traditions and customs of the society in which they exist, An example of these products was the "Architextile", which constituted an important aspect of the human civilization's first production and since its creation to the human societies, as the human intertwined between the traditions and customs of the societies to which he belong and the product of his creations and is evident in architecture, The research discusses the subject of imitation strategies of traditions and customs", which has emerged in the distinctive architectural products of man and throughout the ages, Where many studies have touched on this output, but from many aspects, and did not shed light on the strategy of imitating the customs and traditions of the communities in which the production is located, Hence, the research problem emerged "the lack of comprehensiveness of previous studies of the role of the strategy of imitating traditions and customs in achieving the aesthetic, functional and performance dimensions of contemporary architextile, From the emergence of the research problem, the objective of the research was determined. Based on the previous studies (literary, historical and architectural), "a comprehensive theoretical framework was developed that illustrates the strategy of imitating traditions and customs and their role in achieving the aesthetic, functional and performance dimensions of contemporary architextile," The development of the main and secondary vocabulary, Then subtract and analyze the final findings and conclusions.</p> Safaa AL-Deen H. Ali Ban Mohammed Sultan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 142 157 Optimal Siting of Park and Ride Facilities Using Geospatial Approach <p>The significant increase in car ownership has been recognized as one of the main reasons for traffic congestion worldwide, especially in city centers. Park-and-ride (P&amp;R) facilities, which are car parks where users can adjust to public transportation to carry on their journeys, have long been used as an effective solution to mitigate congestion issues without affecting traffic demand. However, literature on the optimal localization of these facilities using geospatial approaches are still emerging. Feasible locations of P&amp;R facilities are of crucial importance not only for users but also to local authorities and the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the significance of several factors affecting optimal locations of P&amp;R using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to propose a multi-criteria geospatial approach to locate optimal park and ride facilities in Karbala, Iraq. Three key aspects are tested in the localization process, including users’ coverage, accessibility to major roads, and area availability using Geospatial Tool. The case study on the holy city of Karbala in Iraq was implemented and the results show that the optimization model is proved to be powerful in providing more optimal locations of P&amp;R facilities. The paper concludes with a discussion of the practical implications, research limitations and future research directions.</p> Huda Alghazali Hussein Attya Shakir Al-Busaltan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 158 167 Removal of Nickel Ions Using Adsorption onto Activated Carbon Prepared From Cactuses Plant <p>The technique of adsorption is one of the most important processes which are widely used in the treatment of water and wastewater. The technique of adsorption which is a very effective and efficient method in the treatment of pollutants. One of the disadvantages of the process of adsorption using activated carbon is expensive, and this has made researchers think of finding cheap alternatives to reduce the cost&nbsp; this process. In the present study, activated carbon was prepared from the cactus plant for the purpose of its use to remove Ni<sup>+2 </sup>ions. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of Cactuses plant in the removing of Ni<sup>+2</sup> ions from wastewater. The results showed that activated carbon developed from Cactuses has good ability to remove Ni<sup>+2</sup> ions. It was found that the maximum removal efficiency reached to a value of&nbsp; 99.68 % under pH equals to 6.</p> Jabbar H. Al-Baidhani Amal H. Al-Mamoori Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 168 174 The Fracture Toughness of Heat Cured Acrylic- Natural Rubber/Silicone Rubber Blend Reinforced with Pomegranate Peels Powder <p>The development of PMMA resin in denture base fabrication by using the strengthen method represent important factor in the last years, so this study aims to development the mechanical strengthens of PMMA denture base by manufacturing samples based on two types of polymers blends are (poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin: 2% (silicone rubber (SR)) and (PMMA resin:&nbsp; 2% natural rubber (NR)),&nbsp; each one of them used as a matrix material,&nbsp; reinforced by natural nanoparticles of pomegranate peel (PPP), with selected weight fractions ratios (0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 &amp; 0.7% wt.). Some mechanical properties and analytical of (FTIR) were investigated. The results showed an appreciably improvement in the values of flexural strength, max. Shear stress, impact strength and fracture toughness for both groups of hybrids nanocomposites specimens comparing with matrix materials of (PMMA: 2%SR) and (PMMA: 2%NR). Hybrid nanocomposites specimens that based on polymer blend (PMMA: 2%NR) as matrix material&nbsp; reinforced with PPP nanoparticle ,&nbsp; showed the highest values in these properties&nbsp; (144MPa, 12MPa, 10KJ/m² and 5.74MPa.m½) respectively, as compared with specimens of hybrid nanocomposites&nbsp; (PMMA: 2%SR): X% PPP) . On the basis of these results, it can be conclusion that the addition of 2% natural rubber with pomegranate peels powder nanoparticles to the poly methyl methacrylate material is one of the hopeful materials in use to improve the fracture strength for the complete or partial dentures base.</p> Sihama Issa Salih Auda Jabbar Braihi Hussein Mohamed Sadeq Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 175 184 Review of the Baffle Effects on Natural Convection Heat Transfer in an Enclosure Filled with Nanofluid <p>A comprehensive review on wide range of studies on natural convection was published relevant to enclosures especially for the nanofluid enclosures which were exposed to different conditions on its boundary wall. The papers related to the ways that used to enhancement the natural convection heat transfer of a nanofluid within an enclosure region had been discussed in full details. Also contains the experimental and numerical studies related to natural convection heat transfer of a nanofluid. It is of practical and scientific importance to several engineering applications, such as industrial cold-storage installations and insulation for buildings. There are researchers attracted their attention and interested in studying the thermophysical characteristics of the nanoparticle more than anything else of the studies and did not focus on the characteristics of heat transfer by this new fluid. There was a series of investigations and several experimental and numerical studies were investigating within a square shape cavity using nanofluids as working fluid and with the effect of the conductive baffle has a variable-length attached to the bottom horizontal wall. It was found that there is a lot of things need to be investigated for studying the nanoparticle size and shape influence on the natural convection heat transfer inside an enclosure.</p> Barik AL-Muhja Khaled Al-Farhany Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 185 195 The Use of Bitumen Waste Oil to Coating Car Park <p>The research indicates that the use of bitumen is one of the residues of oil refining, made of plastic with tar, which increases its use of power and at the same time gives good stability to the asphalt concrete at high temperatures, and is used in the coating of parking.</p> <p>The recycling of bitumen leads to a reduction in the cost of oil refineries to produce deeper refining, leading to deterioration of the physical and chemical properties of oil tar, and as a result, lead to a decrease in the quality of oil tar.</p> <p>Today, the expansion of raw materials for road bitumen production can be achieved through the use of by-products, construction waste, bitumen recycling,</p> Wisam Abdulkadhim Hussein Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 196 199 Improving Some of the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy Resin Based Polymer Supported by Low Carbon-Steel Fibers <p>In the present study, specimens of composite material were prepared by Hand lay- up molding method. The epoxy resin was reinforced by low carbon steel fibrous at different weight ratios (2, 4, 6)% by the random distribution of steel fiber in the resin. Mechanical properties were studied through (Bending strength, Impact strength and Hardness) tests. The results showed an increase in bending strength of (63%) in the percentage of reinforcement (4%). As for the impact strength, the results also showed an increase of (15%) in the percentage of reinforcement (4 %) , while the rate of increase in the value of hardness was (18%) in the percentage of reinforcement(4%).</p> Naglaa Shakir Aziz Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 200 208