Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: rgb(41, 105, 176); font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: rgb(41, 105, 176);">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: rgb(41, 105, 176);">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: rgb(41, 105, 176);">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: rgb(41, 105, 176);">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: rgb(41, 105, 176);">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> University of Babylon en-US Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences 2616-9916 Gas Turbine Tubular Combustor Main Injector Optimization for Low Emission Combustion <p>This work presents the experimental investigation results of high performance and low emission colorless combustion in a gas turbine tubular combustor at atmospheric conditions. Low emission and colorless oxidation reaction is characterized by dispersed flame and temperature under the conditions of preheated air. System performance, emissions of CO and UHC are recorded up to achieve low emission colorless combustion, the flame capturing, Measurements of temperature, inlet air mass flow rate and gas fuel LPG flow rate for variable of fuel main injector holes diameter. concluded that maximal air mass flow rate, with choked fuel flow in the main injector for each cases promotes the formation of colorless pal blue flame combustion, for 3.2 g/s of fuel flow rate with 6 holes and 1mm main injector holes diameter and lower CO emissions and decreasing in UHC emissions (70 → 10) ppmv with increasing in power generation (0.5 → 3.42) kW and decreasing in S.F.C. (21.5 → 3.49) kg/kwh.</p> Arkan Khikhal Husain Mahmood Attallah Mashkoor Fuad Abdul Ameer Khalaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 1 12 Numerical and Experimental To Evaluate Of Supply Chain Performance Measurement Dairy Industries via Using Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process and Fuzzy Logic <p>With the modern orientation of companies which concentrates mainly on customer, globalizations, and high competition position, this caused the supply chain members must be under high pressure to manage and control their effectiveness. So measuring of supply chain performance in such circumstances can be considered as a crucial effect and it is implemented in this paper. This research aims to estimate supply chain performance measurement based on Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process. In real application, the performance of organization estimated based on different factors and these factors vary in impact on performance depending upon policies and strategies of organization. The importance of each factor was identified by applying Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchical Process technique. Two phases fuzzy logic rule were applied, the first phase i.e. fuzzy inference system was used to identify performance indicator of each factor by using its value and importance. The second phase was started by using second fuzzy inference system to identify supply chain performance measurement by integration of all factor indicators which obtained from first inference rule. The developed approach provides an effective tool for evaluation of supply chain performance measurement and real case study was presented in dairy industries.</p> Riyadh Jamegh AllaEldin Kassam Sawsan Sabih ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 13 22 Flexural Behavior of RC One-Way Slabs Strengthened with Fiber Reinforcement Cementations Matrix, FRCM. <p>Numerical simulation performed in this paper to explore the flexural behavior of RC one way slab strengthened with fiber reinforcement cementations matrix (FRCM). Three dimensional finite element analysis was performed by using ANSYS (17.2). The main issues focused in this paper are (1) the effect of FRCM fabric types on the flexural behavior of strengthened RC slab in terms of both ultimate capacity and deflection, (2) effect of variables compressive strength value of the concrete slab and (3) number of fabric layers for composite material effect. The results showed that the fabric type had a clear effect on the flexural behavior of the strengthened slab. The parametric study also revealed that the flexural strength increases with increasing the compressive strength of concrete when the failure is represented by crushing of the concrete strut. In addition to, the number of fabric layers for composite material had a clear effect on the behavior of RC slab, but to a specified number because then the failure is determined by the action of the concrete in the compression zone.</p> Ali Hadi Adheem Isam M. Ali Mustafa S. Shaker ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 23 35 Dynamic Analysis of Gough Stewart Robot Manipulator by Using Lagrange Formulation in Matlab Software <p>In this paper, Gough Stewart parallel manipulator with six-degree of freedom used as a model to derived the inverse kinematics equations and inverse dynamic equations. The inverse kinematic problem is very simple to derive then used to computed the jacobian matrix and the lengths of the linkages to determine the path trajectory of the moving platform. The dynamic equation based on the Lagrange method by calculated the kinetic and potential energies for the model. The dynamic equation inserted in Simulink block as Matlab file lead to computed the forces of the linkages at any time of simulation and can be used to explain if the path contain a singularities where the forces increasing very quickly in singular point compare with other points during the path of the moving platform. Finally, these blocks can be used in the other models with different parameters inputs.</p> Hassan Mohammed Alwan Riyadh Ahmed Sarhan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 36 50 The Dimensions of Smart Architectural Design <p>In light of the rapid technical technological development of technology and its dominance over the joints of life, the need for intelligent design was born as an important episode of the technological development in the 21st century. This concept became dominant in all other design types, including design with its various disciplines such as architectural design, urban and other. It is capable of dealing with architecture &amp; urban problems and solving them, and it has the ability to study the relationship between architectural buildings and transportation, social and political planning thinking, its relation to the urban and economic aspects, and the provision of safe and easy means of freedom and of the transition between the spaces. And provide special spaces for people to enable them to meet and meet all their social requirements. In order to shed light on the dimensions of smart urban &amp; architectural design, it is necessary to build on a global research ground that explores the concepts of urban intelligence. The research aims to study the concept of smart cities, sustainability, dynamic design, etc., because of its strong association with the concept of intelligence on the one hand and the urban &amp; architectural design concept, Global government interest in this issue as in the European Parliament, for example. One of the most important elements of urban design is the need to deal with the city or region in a comprehensive way away from reading the elements separately to reach a suitable design for that region. A good urban design is the close link between city planning and architectural design. And that the body of the city is not integrated except in the presence of public spaces and to broadcast the spirit is not only interest in the health of its streets, it is necessary to participate people in the design of the city, but through a questionnaire on the opinion of design thought, there should be a collection of as many ideas as possible to reach Type of integration with urban structures. The research presents a research hypothesis that artificial intelligence may be the concept of smart cities, which is influential in rephrasing the dimensions of the concept of urban design according to the theory that came from the Matthew Carmona through a theory that calls for integration in the dimensions required for the architectural and urban design of the social space suitable for man.</p> Hussam Jabbar Kias A.H. Abbass Ahmad Hadadd ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 51 68 The Importance of Digital Modeling to Understand the Functional Change of Urban Landuses <p>Mathematical modeling is one of the important tools to derive theories and indicate causal relations between spatial variability of various phenomena, scientific theory developed for the purpose of conducting spatial analysis of the phenomenon through time they used mathematical modeling to link Variables and factors influencing the phenomenon.</p> <p>Mathematical modeling has evolved after entering the digital technology, the wording of the various models is done by the computer via custom software designed for that purpose, geographic information systems (GIS) is one of the most important digital systems that allow researchers using mathematical modeling In the analysis and interpretation of spatial relations of various phenomena through fellowship.</p> <p>Urban land uses are one of spatial phenomena in cities created for various functions such as housing and shopping, transport and mobility, manufacturing, education, health and other services to the city through the relationships and interactions among them and are subject to the rules of logical theory suit City environment and administered through planning and management regulations .</p> <p>Urban landuses affected in Najaf during 1994 till 2018&nbsp; by factors influenced the change of the relationship between them, have changed their functions have become different in nature from the planned situation, This led to problems,and Prompting the researcher to adopt digital mathematical modeling specifically )GWR) to identify causal factors of functional change in urban land uses in the city during the study period as well as try to interpret the indicators and results and representation Digital maps allow for the possibility of developing a planning and management.</p> Naseer A. Hasach Albasri ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 69 95 Study the Effect of Silica Gel Powder on Clathrate Hydrate Formation Behavior for HFC-134a Gas. <p>One of the important aims of gas hydrate technology is to enhance the formation of hydrate or reduction the induction time for clathrate formation. The effect of the different promoter silica gel powder on R-134a gas hydrate formation has been investigated in the isochoric system experiment. It is noted that the purse media have a significant effect in increasing the speed of nucleation as well as improving the growth of hydrate. In the experiment, the effect of silica gel powder was studied to determine their effect on the composition and cooling capacity of 134 hydrates. From kinetic models were obtained many objective functions such as the amount of gas consumed (∆n), the growth rate (r (t)), and conversion of the water to hydrate. The gas consumed (∆n) of binary system increased with increase initial pressure of hydrate formation, also the hydrate growth rate (r (t)) and increase conversion of water to hydrate increase &nbsp;when this the first time that the effect of silica gel pweder on these functions with average active size (900) nm, BET surface area (0.65) m<sup>2</sup>/g, pore volume 210.85 cm<sup>3</sup>/g and average pore size (900) nm that studied for use in industrial applications and water treatment. The improvement of hydrate growth is marked by the addition of silica gel powder, which in turn increase the solubility of hydrate gas and reduce the contact angle. In addition,&nbsp;&nbsp; silica gel powder positively the contact with the gas through the increase of the interaction surface between gas and water and this increases the rate of formation of hydrate.</p> Riyadh Sadiq AL-Mukhtar Shurooq Talib AL-Hemeri Mustafa Saadi Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 96 110 Impact of Transport Systems Operating in Cities' Centers on Urban Development (Environment) <p>The transport systems operating within the city in general and its center in particular have a great impact on urban development within the city's sustainability. Development in all its parts and components aims at preserving the human, environment and resources on the one hand and providing a safe, easy and healthy life on the one hand. Transport is a fundamental, effective and effective part of development because of its great impact on the development of cities. Today, it is the basis of the engine of life in cities and its impact on the economic, tourism, social, environmental and many more. Traffic systems during the last century, and continuing to come together now and in the future, and is a natural consequence of the substantial increase in population numbers throughout the world, including Baghdad city center. Therefore, the importance of the subject is "the result of the importance of transport systems operating in the city and its impact on development and the environmental, economic and health aspects." The hypothesis "Integrated and sustainable public transport systems have social, environmental, health and economic impacts at the city level in general, Access when available "research problem" is the lack of a clear cognitive perception of the reality of the transport systems adopted in the city on development and the environmental, economic, social and health.</p> Mohammed kareem mohessen Bahjet Rashad Shahin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-25 2018-11-25 26 10 111 133 Effect the Coefficient of Performance in the Production of Architecture <p>If the procedural definition of the performance act is ("the mixing of subjective and objective effort in a logical and conscious action to reflect the architectural thought and create the optimal expression between the desired image and the possible image with references from inside or outside the architecture to meet the need of the receiver and thus accept).</p> <p>Is this dimension performative specific performance coefficient can be measured by the performance of architecture through which, if we know that the definition of coefficient of performance ((is the energy required relative to the paid energy)) and the relationship of these two definitions, an architectural concept of performance evaluation, which is a system that helps in measuring and evaluating the relationship between the efficiency of the performance duties and functions of the job Eshetglha and all of the behavior and the ability of the product on the best results achieved performance according to the level of performance and the degree of actual achievement, which helps to know the strengths and weaknesses of the past performance and determine how to avoid weaknesses and investment strengths at the present time and in the pain Will be accepted to reach the highest degree of performance efficiency, including the individual and the community. If the objective of architecture core is the benefit of man all the physical, moral, social and economic levels ... etc., since this science dimension Adaiaa goal of the benefit of man and therefore society finds research his problem through the questions, you can find a constant coefficient of performance architecture can be measured? How to take advantage of the performance coefficient can be used as a criterion for measuring the benefit of architecture, and what is the relationship between the benefit of the production and function of the architecture, what specializes performance output coefficient or usefulness of the function of architectural production. This gives the signal to determine the main hypothesis that architecture science goal is to find the function of the product of working on the benefit of the human system and this system consists of a set of elements and through the study of these elements and their relationships can be reached Adaiatha plants. Whereas the secondary hypothesis: the possibility of finding for the benefit of architectural output function for performing access to read in the life of architecture through the elements of its projects components and can therefore be life indicator architectural output and ensure the preservation of Adaiatha.</p> <p>In this case, it is possible to refer the information base to the search through the variable used in the coefficient of performance of the architectural output symbolized by the symbol X and the theoretical objectives of the research in the possibility of knowing, containing and directing the change in the nature of the performance awareness of the benefit of a particular architectural product by knowing its practical function in providing a method of measurement Which enables them to identify a new relationship and a new life in architecture that depends mainly on the performance factor of the architectural output and its relation to elements of the architectural system to reach a building that is full of life and as long as possible.</p> <p>&nbsp;Independent variables: the components of the performance of the architectural production of energy production, required and paid and its impact on the life of architecture. The research was based on a methodology that consisted of the following axes: the axis of the efficiency of performance, the role of the mind and its transfer to its own, and the focus of the study examples and conclusions and recommendations.</p> Hussam Jabbar Ibrahim Al Husseini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 134 149 Implementation of an Automated Vacuum Elevator System <p>Pneumatic vacuum elevator (PVE) has become a popular choice for our homes and low-rise buildings in recent years. The Pneumatic vacuum elevator represents a new concept evolved from the idea of pressed air applied in the pneumatic elevator replaced by a vacuum air idea. The pneumatic vacuum elevator is able to transport people between building floors without using any cables, counterweight, or pulleys. A simple and low cost construction and implementation for an Electro-pneumatic vacuum elevator system prototype is presented in this paper. The elevator system prototype is constructed with three floors to elevate a maximum load of 6kg. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) of (LS\GLOFA-G7M-DR30U) series with (16) inputs and (12) outputs programmed with Ladder diagram software is used for the fully automated the elevator system. The idea of the proposed elevator system may be predicted to be widely spread in the low-rise residential buildings.</p> Farag Mahel Mohammed Jamal Abdul-Kareem Mohammed Mustafa Ali Naji ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 150 165 The Ethics of Decoration in Architecture <p>The decoration has been associated with various human achievements since ancient times and has been considered by some of theses &nbsp;as an additional, non-mandatory , can be probability&nbsp; remove , subtract and dispensable. It is misunderstood as a mere addition and an instrument&nbsp; for beauty as its artistic characteristics, especially the decorative&nbsp; jewelry. In contrast to the concept of mandatory&nbsp; ethics concept &nbsp;which associated with</p> <p>both for purposes and values aspects, that contrast highlighted the need to discuss them together to investigate the ethical aspects of decorating in architectural output to undermine those ideas, which considered decorating as a surplus only.</p> <p>The research problem was explained by&nbsp;"absence &nbsp;a clear conception of the ethical indicators of decorating the product of architecture", Thus the goal of the research is that "put the ethical indicators of decoration the architectural output at the level of plans and facades" , so the research put hypothesis as "highlighting the ethics of decoration within both the subcontractor and the apparent levels In each of plans and facades, to achieve architectural output as a whole", it focused on uncovering the ethical indicators of decoration the architectural output, in order to present a special theoretical framework for the indicators of moral decoration at the level of plans and the facades together,</p> <p>It has been confirmed that the decoration at the level of the plans and the facade both, that confirmed its commitment to the functional aspects economic , safety environmental construction, as well as to the aesthetic aspects of expressive and symbolic especially Tectonics, as determined the apperance of architectural output as a whole Today, after its development into digital tectonics for the production of digital surfaces, which were described as skins to overlap the structure (the structure - the skin) and their material together weaving decoration process thanks to the digital potentials to represent the digital surface space or metaphysical fabric and a living space for various functional and aesthetic values in the current era, including richer functional plans and expression facades.</p> Abdulla Sadoon Salman Enas Salim Abdulahaad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 166 180 Optimum Path Planning for Multi Mobile Robots with Speed of Work Achievement as Constrain <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents optimum path planning for multi mobile robots that move between an initial point toward a target point then back to the initial point in a way that avoid collision without heavily slow down robots speed. The work system designs for taking into consideration robots velocities as well as time that robots will spend it in their target points, since both could be variant for all robots. In order to achieve the work objectives, time and space method combined with sequential entry method are used to design robots motion. In addition, two priority levels are used of carefully selected priorities to avoid collision between robots; node level priority and robot level priority. In node level priority, the priority gives to robots in a manner that minimize the number of over all system collisions. While in robot level priority the priority gives to robots that cause faster speed for work achievement. The work is tested with different number of robots and different types of maps, and the algorithm proved its efficiency in finding the optimum solution regarding system performance for each robot in the collision points. The proposed algorithm is implemented using VBA programming language.</p> Bashra Kadhim Oleiwi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 181 196 Effect Type of Solvent, Type of Catalyst and Power of Lamp on Photo Oxidation of Benzene <p style="text-align: justify;">The oxidation of benzene by UV-light in the presence of catalyst was studied .It was found that the residual concentration of benzene decreased with the time of irradiation increasing .The complete&nbsp; oxidation was at 180 min. Plot of (LnC) against (t)&nbsp; showed a straight line of pseudo first order reaction .Many solvents such as methanol ethanol , toluene and n-hexane&nbsp; were used in the experiments which explained that the rate constant increased linearly with the polarity of the solvent. ZnO , Cu<sub>2</sub>O , TiO<sub>2</sub> were used in the photo oxidation of&nbsp; benzene as a photo catalysts in addition to the using of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>&nbsp; .The residual&nbsp; concentration of benzene was the minimized value with TiO<sub>2</sub> due to increasing the surface area. Also the increasing in the power of lamp lead to increase the rate of reaction.</p> Ahmed Khadem Abass ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 197 207 Evaluation Performance of a Solar Box Cooker in Baghdad <p style="text-align: justify;">In this research, an experimental study was conducted on the solar box cooker manufactured with dimensions of (50*50*47cm). The solar box cooker was tested in Baghdad city from 7/4/2018 to 21/4/2018. Evaluation was carried out to test the performance of the solar cooker in two stages. The first stage included the solar cooker test in four cases through the test of the solar box cooker as fixed tracking and these two cases with and without a reflective mirror as another two cases. The results of the tests show that the best performance of the solar box cooker is when using the tracking and the reflective mirror in which the water temperature reached 109°C at 14:00 and also this test gives average water temperature during test period 81.6°C. The second stage the best case was selected (tracking solar box cooker with reflective mirror) to evaluate its performance according to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers standards. Therefore, the test of the solar box cooker was conducted with tracking and the reflective mirror for three days to reach a more accurate results in which 38 observations from those tests was selected. The results show that standardized cooking power equals to 56.09 W at a temperature difference of 50°C with r<sup>2</sup> = 0.8318.</p> Saif Ali Kadhim Ali Habeeb Askar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 208 216 Optimization of EDM Process Factors for Machining Al-Si Alloy Using Response Surface Methodology <p style="text-align: justify;">This work exhibits an incorporated way to deal with the procedure demonstrating and multi-target improvement of EDM parameters of Al-Si based on response surface methodology (RSM) combined with desirability function (DF) method. The’ effect’ of’ process’ parameters&nbsp; &nbsp;for’ example, pulse current (I<sub>p</sub>), pulse’ on’ time’ (T<sub>on</sub>) as well as pulse’ off’ time’ (T<sub>off</sub>) on’ metal removal’ rate’ (MRR), electrode’ wear’ rate’ (EWR) and’ surface’ roughness’ (Ra), were analyzed. An extensive investigation of difference (ANOVA) at fixed indicative level of 5%, was done to completely distinguish the most persuasive parameters, and the sufficiency of all fitted relapse models were checked. To completely comprehend the trademark machinability conduct under various EDM conditions, fundamental effect investigation. The results indicate that MRR increases with the rising I<sub>p</sub> and T<sub>on</sub>. Low EWR and Ra can be acquired by diminishing I<sub>p</sub> and T<sub>on</sub>. Be that as it may, the I<sub>p </sub>is the most commanding parameter pursued by T<sub>on</sub> and T<sub>off</sub> for MRR and Ra whereas in the EWR, the I<sub>p</sub> is the foremost factor, followed by the T<sub>off</sub> and T<sub>on</sub>. Lastly, a multi-optimization way dependent upon the desirability function (DF) idea was used to discover ideal blends of machining parameters so that it was capable to produce the the most extreme estimation of MRR and least estimations of EWR and Ra, inside the noteworthy information parameters.</p> Saad H. Al-Shafaie Nada Talib ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 217 228 Experimental Study of Vibration Effect on Porous Media <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;The evolution of techniques required to mobilize reservoir fluids at critical saturation is important because of global needs for petroleum, and because of the necessity to conserve the subterranean water that deteriorated because of the slowness of the dismantling of persistent organic pollutants. The acoustic waves of low frequency are one of these methods, but until recently the absence of understanding of the vibration effect to displace oil prevent vibration application in the field. This paper proves that oil permeability increased when the vibration induced in porous media; that vibration makes resorting to the rock grains, which stimulate passage for liquid moving through the reservoir. The capillary pressure and reservoir pressure should be taken in consideration in order to make optimum validation for vibration stimulation.</p> Hanoon Hassan Ali Nooruldeen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 229 238 Processing of Ultra Wideband LFM Signals Using Correlation-Filtering Method <p style="text-align: justify;">The principles of processing the superposition of reflected ultra wideband chirp Signals by a correlation-filter method are considered; as a result, a transformation occurs in the spatial "window" in the range of the compressed LFM signals and is proportional to their frequency shift. At the same time, the frequency band of the reflected signals is reduced in proportion to the transformation coefficient, so that their further processing can be carried out in digital form, thereby ensuring high stability and identity of the processed signals necessary for more reliable recognition of radar targets with allowance for superresolution in the distance. A method is proposed for compensating frequency detuning compressed and frequency-shifted superposition of reflected LFM signals, which makes it possible to carry out their weight processing using standard methods and to limit the spectral band. Thus, the signal-to-noise ratio increases, and the correlation filtering method of processing, taking into account the compensation of frequency detuning of the transformed and compressed LFM signals, approaches the optimal method. This makes it possible to provide detection at longer distances, about 0.8 times the maximum detection, and, if necessary, take appropriate measures. &nbsp;It is shown that, regardless of the size of the spatial window, energy losses remain minimal, and the frequency of discrete samples of compressed pulses decreases in proportion to the transformation coefficient, while ensuring high resolution and saving phase information about the brilliant points in the spatial image.</p> Intissar Hamid Obaid ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 239 249 “Experimental and Theoretical Study of a Multi- Stage Solar Still Connected to Evacuated Solar Collector Tubes” <p style="text-align: justify;">Solar distillation is an effective and a useful method to solve the problem of water scarcity usable on the surface of the earth. A multi-stage solar still was used, and the performance of it was improved by linking it to (Evacuated Solar Collector Tubes), the rate of increase in productivity is about (38%). Practical and theoretical calculations were carried out on two cases. The first case was the basin of the first stage containing water only; the second case was the basin containing the fiber of the palm. When comparing the two cases there was a similarity between the two cases, but the addition of leaf fiber improved the increase in night productivity. The rate of increase in night productivity is about (25%).This type of solar still was a modern technology in improving the performance of multi-stage solar still.</p> Muntadher H. Abed Muna S- Kassim Fouad A. Saleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 250 264 The Effect of UV- Radiation on Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Polyurethane/ nanoTiO2 Sizing by Unsaturated Polyester <p style="text-align: justify;">Polyurethane foams were fabricated with different percentages of nano titanium dioxide (TiO<sub>2</sub>) and sizing by the unsaturated polyester. In these samples, the (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles were inserted to polyurethane foams as filler with different percentages (1%, 3%, 5% and 7wt %) to study the effect of UV radiation and (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles on some of mechanical properties, such as (impact resistance and bending strength) as well as the chemical resistance in salt media. Results showed the impact resistance increased with increasing of the (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles weight percentage until 3wt%. Moreover, the bending strength increased with rising in weight percentages of (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticles until 5wt%. The optimum sample of chemical resistance was 5wt% of (TiO<sub>2</sub>) nanoparticle. Finally, the UV radiation leads to decrease of the mechanical properties. Additionally, chemical resistance was decreased with UV radiation exposure. Sample with 5wt% has the best and lowest of weight loss than other samples.</p> Rusul M. Abd Alradha ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 265 272 Elderberry (Sambucus nigra) Distribution and Abundance in Syria <p style="text-align: justify;">Elderberry (<em>Sambucus nigra</em>) is one of the important multiuse plants in the world. There is no studies about this shrub in Syria. In this study, information about this plant was collected from two sections: first in the whole world with collecting environmental needs and information about international distribution and abundance. In second way, sites that looked appropriate by using information from first section were chosen for looking about elderberry in Syria. Information, samples, photos, evidences and witnesses have been investigated for the first time about this species in Syria. Aleppo (City of Aleppo &amp; Afrin province), Idlib, Homs and Damascus were sites have individuals in natural or cultivated form of this plant. Lattakia and Tartus didn’t have any evidence of this plant. As a result of this study a predicted map of <em>Sambucus nigra</em> distribution was putted for Syria and collected information about this plant can help in future researches in Syria.</p> Mustafa Nur Istanbuly ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 273 285 Paradigm Shifts in the Characteristics of the Interior Architectural Space through Technology Perspective <p style="text-align: justify;">The architectural space has undergone several Transformations in its formal characteristics in line with several factors such as environmental, social and political changes and demands. The spatial change appears by influence of different cultures and societal characteristics, and chronologically through the succession of ages and the consequent change in the factors mentioned above. The characteristic of internal space was an integral part of the characteristics of the styles and architectural trends that prevailed in each era. There is no doubt that the prevailing technology in every age had its role in shaping the architectural forms and crystallization of the paradigm that expresses the characteristics of the age and its concept. As the current era is witnessing a shift towards digitization technology, the research problem has emerged from the "The lack of knowledge in clarifying the indicators of the transformation of technology systems which affect the characteristics of the interior architectural space through the ages, up to the age of digitization technology". &nbsp;Thus the aim of the research is to explore the general features the paradigm shifts in the interior architectural spaces through a technological system's perspective, assuming&nbsp; that " the interior architectural space has paradigm defined by common characteristics associated with the prevailing technological system of its age, These characteristics undergo a change along with changing technological system (or technological entity)." To reach its aim, the research adopted an exploratory approach to the architectural interior spaces through the historical epochs and by illustrating examples representing each epoch. This was preceded by an introduction of the concepts of the interior architectural space and the paradigm in architecture, then identification of the indicators of the architecture technological system, which were to be observed in the characteristics of interior space at all historical epochs leading to the crystallization of the paradigmatic features. One of the most important findings of the research is that the interior architectural space has undergone three major paradigmatic shifts in its characteristics over the ages. They are; first, the pre-modern spaces paradigm, which had clearly marked boundaries, heavy mass weight, limited association with the outside, and the principles of symmetry and axiality. Second, the paradigmatic characteristics of Modernism spaces and beyond, which also had clear boundaries but with the possibility of camouflage and manipulation and reduction in the mass of the space elements as well as an increase of openness to the outside along with the Cancellation of the principles of classical symmetry and axiality. Finally, the interior space paradigm of the age of digitization, which is characterized by the possibilities of concealment of borders, in addition to lightness, transparency, smoothness and the fusion of elements with abolition of mass weight.</p> Halla Mohammed Hasan Hadi Saba Sami Mehdi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 286 298 Investigation the Coating of Hydroxyapatite on Titanium Substrate by Pulse Laser Deposition <p style="text-align: justify;">This study investigated and prepared a coating for surgical implants by using hydroxyapatite (HA) empowers characteristic bone that developed at a medium for prosthetic the parts of human body. HA is the generally manufactured from both Calcium (Ca) and Phosphate (P) to produce (Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub>) that used as a base material for covering mineral embeds because of its incredible biocompatibility and comparable the synthesis and structure to sclerous tissues of the human body. HA, coatings on titanium substrates have been produced by Pulses laser deposition (PLD) techniques. HA used in this search pressed at pressure (150MPa) with particle size (2.745 µm) and used as a target in coating by (PLD) techniques. Surface characterization studies of the coatings such as XRD, SEM, AFM and EDX to detect the amount of (Ca) and (P) in coating layer were carried out. Then test the micro-hardness, surface roughness for HA coating .Corrosion behavior for uncoated and coated samples with various number of pulses in Hank’s solution by using OCP and the potentially static polarization test were achieved also, , in this test we obtained a greatly improved in corrosion resistance of the samples B1 after coating by 99.88%.</p> Rasha Safaa Hadi Haydar H. Jamal Al-deen Nabaa S. Radhi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 299 311 Urban and Architectural Impacts of Religious Visits on the Architecture of Holy Shrines: The Case of Al Attaba Al Alaweya <p style="text-align: justify;">The religious visit to the holy shrines is an important aspect of the life and behavior of Muslims because of the connection to a religious and spiritual conviction based on frequent statements sayings by the great Prophet Muhammad and his holy family, that the imam intended to visit is present is hearing and responding the greeting. The visit has its impact on the heart from the spiritual point of view, in addition to the request for intercession because they are close to Allah. The visit to any imam is a visit to the Prophet, also as if he visited the throne of God. The importance of the visit and then the number of visitors from an architectural and planning point of view form important criterion in the development and change of the architecture of the threshold and the urban adjacent fabric because its include the behavioral, social and cultural functional dimensions, as well as the decrees and traditions of the visit during religious events. The absence of a clear knowledge of the architectural and urban influences of religious visits in the building of the holy shrines, The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the impact of the concept of the visit and the number of visitors in the development of the architecture of the threshold and surrounding urban fabric. It also deals with the ability of accommodating the urban spaces of the increasing numbers of visitors and their religious, social and cultural activities and the need to study them as a functional criterion in the development of the architecture of the thresholds in general and the Imam Ali threshold and sacred subject matter in particular</p> Mahmood Rezooky Hamid Almamoori Hamza ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 312 334 Free Vibration Analysis of Perforated Laminated Composite Square Plates <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents a study of free vibration of perforated laminate composite plate. The modal characteristics consist of three layers, the material is hard orthotropic composite material, with simply support (SSSS), Clamped boundary (CCCC) and simple clamed conditions (SCSC) are applied at all four edges of the plate.. The natural frequency and mode shape of the plates have been obtained using ANSYS 15. Eight-node isopaprametric layered shell elements (SHELL 281) are employed in the modeling for describing the vibrations of these perforated laminate composite plates. The effect of number of holes, hole area ratio, lamination angles and boundary condition on vibrations are investigated. The convergence study was achieved for numerically and compare with present literature. The results showed that the frequencies of the plate with one hole at the center are different from the perforated plate when maintaining a fixed ratio hole area, as well the lamination angle has a clear effect on the increase and decrease of the fundamental frequency for all the tested cases. &nbsp;</p> Mohammed Salih Hassan AL-Araji Ali Sadik Gafer Raad Salman Saed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 335 345 Semantic Management of E-learning in College of Engineering at Kerbala University <p style="text-align: justify;">Internet is the essential tool of transmitting information and providing services to facilitate the human daily jobs. The internet has a great impact on various fields of life, including learning, where e-learning emerged as one of the services provided by the Internet. E-learning is a distance knowledge acquisition by using electronic methods and it has increased dependence in the two decades ago. One of the problems facing e-learning is contents management because E-learning differs from traditional learning by overcoming the conditions of time and place. The semantic web is the restructuring of the current web to managing data and resources to become more effective for human and machine. The semantic web is based on an ontology which is defined as a descriptive representation of data and resources. It is expected that Semantic Web technologies and Ontologies will affect the next generation of e-learning systems and applications. Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a general modeling for data representation by using a variety of syntax. A friend of a friend (FOAF) and Dublin Core (DC) are a vocabulary description depending on RDFs' rules.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper presents a semantic management of E-learning in College of Engineering at University of Kerbala based on ontology of users’ profile, scientific activities, and lessons. RDF, FOAF, and DC are used to create a syntax of metadata. The proposed work was evaluated according to average precision and recall of the search's results and social network metrics.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The results demonstrate that FOAF is a good way to represent nodes and relations and this improves using it in searching without access the database. FOAF has the ability to gathering dispersed data into common interests.</p> Humam M. Abdul Sahib Ihab L.Hussein Alsammak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 346 358 Ecopolis Strategy in the Sustainable Urban Regeneration of Historic City Centers <p style="text-align: justify;">Historical city centers represent the oldest part of the city that reflect its importance and history through a concrete cultural identity with fixed features. These centers maintain their authenticity by maintaining their continuity. However, historical city centers have been exposed to many factors that have affected their structure, especially the physical structure, which required the emergence of a policy to regenerate these vital areas of the city in a sustainable manner. The Sustainable Urban Regeneration Policy has focused on the multiple dimensions of the urban environment of the historical center represented by - the physical dimension, the economic dimension, the social dimension, the cultural dimension and the institutional dimension-, focusing on the physical dimension considering it the most important in the regeneration of historical city centers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Many urban sustainability strategies have focused on regenerating the historical center under the umbrella of sustainable urban regeneration. However, they have not focused on physical aspect as a basis for regenerating the structure of the historical center as a whole. In the 1990s, the Ecopolis strategy has emerged, concentrating on the environmental -physical dimension of the urban structure, that promotes the spatial attraction, thereby improving the quality of life in historic city centers.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The objective of the research is to extract the mechanisms and indicators of the Ecopolis strategy in the environmental-physical dimension through three aspects; the urban form, urban efficiency and the flow of elements in the historical center structure, which create a spatial environment that achieves the well-being of the inhabitants. As well as the application of the indicators on an elected environment (Al-Karkh Historical Center).</p> Sally F. Kh. Abdullah Hoda A. Al-Alwan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 359 380 Series of Engineering Sciences Vol. 26, No. 10, 2018. <p>Series of Engineering</p> Zahraa sabah Saleh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-11-26 2018-11-26 26 10 1 2