Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: #2969b0; font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: #2969b0;">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> en-US (Info.) (Hayder Faisal) Mon, 09 Dec 2019 07:05:20 +0000 OJS 60 Application of Lean System Principles in Healthcare Services Using Arena Simulation <p>This research aims to apply lean principles to the Emergency Department (ED) at Sheikh Zayed Hospital. Lean techniques are used in order to eliminate waste, waits and increased patient satisfaction. Lean defines the wastes but not identify which waste should be eliminated for this reason Arena 14.00 Rockwell simulation software used to analyze the ED performance. Patient's flow chart was created to study the total duration of patients stay in the ED, the waiting time and the utilization of resources based on the lean principles approach. The results identified and concluded from simulation model were as the follows, the patient flow time was (65) minute for each patient (total time that patient spent from the beginning of his entry into the ED until he discharged), while patient throughput in morning shift about (241) patient (the number of patients attending the department during morning hours). On the other hand, the utilization ratio of doctors, nurses, receptionists were (83 %, 13 %, and 95 %) respectively. This is demonstrating the applicability and effectiveness of lean principles to ED processes using the simulation model as a pre-implementation tool for improvements in health care sectors.&nbsp;</p> Dhuha Kadhim Ismayyir, Aseel Jameel Haleel Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Fri, 01 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Transformation Towards Self-Built Architecture <p>The concept of transformation has been invested in architecture using bio-simulation as a means to produce architecture that responds to different influences. In a similar way, the building transforms the behavior of living organisms in its adaptation to environmental influences during the construction of its structure. The need to clarify the concept and approach to the transition towards self-construction architecture, which expresses the goal of research in building a theoretical framework to study the research problem and extracted from the various design and implementation methods in architectural projects and to reach a number of key and secondary vocabulary and applied to selected projects and conduct measurement. Using mechanics of growth and manufacturing using advanced digital materials is the future orientation of<br>architecture to be self-construct.</p> Faten Yaseen Ali, Safaa Al-Deen Hussein Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences An Attempt to Find Suitable Parameters for Coagulation-Flocculation Processes for the Treatment of Water <p>Water turbidity is considered as an important physical parameter of water quality. It is a good indicator for assessing the required treatment for the drinking water. In the present study, a standard jar tests were conducted to obtain the most suitable parameters for the design of coagulation-flocculation process. Results proved that the best rapid mixing time (t<sub>1</sub>), slow mixing time (t<sub>2</sub>), and settling time (t<sub>3</sub>) are 1, 50 and 60 min respectively. The maximum removal efficiencies of turbidity were 99.31, 98.56 and 94.72% at t<sub>1</sub>,&nbsp; t<sub>2</sub> and t<sub>3</sub> equal to&nbsp; 5, 50 and 60 min respectively, with pH values ranged from 3.7 to 8.9. The measured values of water turbidity removal perecentage were represented using an artificial neural network (ANN) technique and the results signified that there is a remarkable agreement between experimental and predicted values with coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>) and root mean squared error (RMSE) equal to 0.932 and 0.5501 respectively.</p> Jabbar H. Al-Baidhani, Ayad H. Fasal, Nassrin J. Al-Mansori, Lamya Shaker Fadel Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Robustness of Modulation Formats Technique to Four Wave Mixing Crosstalk Under 80 Gbps Data Rate. <p>Four wave mixing (FWM) in optical fibers is an undesirable effect to an optical transmission system that can cause a severe limitation in the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and reduces the system performance. Within this paper, the normal intensity of RZ robustness modulation and the Modified-Duobinary-Return–Zero modulation (MDRZ) on FWM was investigated. In addition, the performance of the system under the fiber length variation effect was evaluated under the impact of (80) Gbps data rate for both types of modulation format. The results showed that the RZ modulation introduces a minimum (FWM) power of (-54) dBm at (70) kms fiber length, while MDRZ offers FWM power of (-44) dBm at the exactly same fiber length, In-term of the performance of the system at channel 4, a minimum BER was noticed in normal RZ modulation which equals to&nbsp;&nbsp; 2.27´10 - 43 at (-35.31) dBm received power. However, the BER was 4.98´10-15 at the same received power and channel, in the existence of MDRZ modulation format. The finding reveals the progress of RZ modulation in reducing the FWM crosstalk and enhances the WDM system performance even with the impact of high data rates.</p> Noora Salim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences The Experimentally Studying of Solid Desiccant Wheel Performance Combined with the System of Air Conditioning <p>The aim of this study was to study the performance of the system of solid desiccant dehumidification to decrease the latent load on cooling coil for the system of air-conditioning and advance the thermal comfort, thus reduce the energy consumption. Rotary desiccant wheel contains a silica gel as a solid moisture absorbent material has been utilized in this study. The wheel was a diameter of 55 cm and a thickness of 20 cm. The wheel cross sectional area is divided into two parts in aspect ratio. The large part represent dehumidification or absorption process, in this section moisture is removed from the humid air by the silica gel. While the other part represent desorption or regeneration process in this section moisture was absorbed from the humid air by the gel of silica in the first process will be removed from it. The experimental results demonstrates that the utilizing of the desiccant wheel will reduce significantly the thermal load on the cooling coil by reducing the latent load of the passing of humid air respectively via the wheel and the cooling coil</p> Zainab M. Salih, Abdulsalam D.M.Hassen, Amer Majeed.Al-Dabagh Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences New Model for Passive Vibration Control of Cantilever Beams Using Two Patches of Fluidic Flexible Matrix Composite Tubes <p>Flexible Matrix Composite (F<sup>2</sup>MC) tubes are emerging technologies, which can provide lightweight, compact vibration control when attached to a vibrating structure. This work presents a new model for solving a problem of vibrations in cantilever beams with attaching F<sup>2</sup>MC tubes as patches that provide passive vibration control.&nbsp; Mathematical model of the compound system of patches of F<sup>2</sup>MC tubes integrated on the beam was derived. The governing equations depend on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and Lekhnitskii’s theory of elasticity. This study examined new model’s performance for damping with variation in tube size; bonding position of the patches on the beam in two different cases: &nbsp;on the beam through changing the distance between two them; one patch above and the other under the beam. Analytical results demonstrate that the proper tuning the size of tubes as a function of inner layer radius; and integration points are basic parameters for passive vibration control. They achieve reductions in response amplitude at the first vertical bending mode effectively.</p> Shireen O. Mohammad, Nazhad A. Hussain Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Requirements for Functional Integration in the Design of Train Stations <p>Train stations are an important part of modern urban history. Large stations have helped to form the public image of the city in which they are located. Train stations are important distribution areas and exchanges where different types of transport are connected. It is a meeting place for people, commercial, recreational and cultural centers, due to the neglect and deterioration of local stations, especially with regard to the functional aspects in terms of providing the necessary amenities, movement and waiting, and weak in achieving the aspects of sustainability in the design of these stations, which leads to the atrophy of their effectiveness. The importance of research to work on the development of these stations and revitalization to contribute to the performance of its effectiveness in an integrated manner and to meet the needs of different travelers and encourage them to use public transport, Therefore, many studies have been discussed that dealt with the functional aspects of the design of train stations implicitly or majorly, Therefore, many studies have been discussed that dealt with the functional aspects of the design of train stations implicitly or majorly, but these studies were characterized by plurality and inclusiveness in the introduction of design treatments. Thus, the research problem of "the need to find a comprehensive theoretical concept of functional integration requirements in the design of local train stations" The aim of the research is to "develop a comprehensive theoretical conception of the requirements of functional integration in the design of local train stations."</p> Ammar kareem Dhumad , Abdullah Saadoon Salman Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Performance of Activated Ricinus Communis Leaves for Degradation Oily Wastewater from Aqueous Solution <p>In this work, <em>Ricinus</em> <em>Communis</em> leaves used as adsorbent to eliminate dissolved oil in oil-water emulsion, the adsorbent was used in activated state, the influence of different parameters like initial oil concentration, adsorbent dosage, and contact time were examined in this study. The particle size used was (300 - 150 micron), at (pH &lt; 2), 200 rpm. and adsorbent concentration of 400 mg/L, The oil uptake increased from 78 % to 88% for oil concentration of 2000 mg/L by using natural and activated respectively,&nbsp; the study was characterized by FTIR, SEM, and BET tests. FTIR test. Activated adsorbent proved good capability of adsorption aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Isotherm study had used to understand the mechanism of adsorption. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm were fitted very well&nbsp; to describe the adsorption resulting by activated adsorbent, this study also characterized by kinetic models, Pseudo second order was the best fitted model for adsorption by adsorbent.</p> Wisam Shamkhi Jaber , Abeer Ibrahim Alwared Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Holy Shrines From An Engineering Perspective - A Case Study In Al-Najaf And Karbala <p>The study dealt with the study of the holy shrines in Al-Najaf and Karbala from a geometrical viewpoint, where the development of these thresholds has been studied historically, as well as the most important structural and architectural features of these thresholds and the work of the current expansions to cope with the increase in the volume of worshipers and visitors. The construction works were characterized by high quality and efficiency in terms of style Construction and selection of structural materials as well as the sustainability of construction. The volume of expenses disbursed to these works is not small and it comes in total donations from individuals or institutions from inside and outside Iraq.</p> <p>Through this study it becomes clear that the role of worship in the holy shrines grows and evolves over time to keep pace with the urban development and the increase in the size of the worshipers and visitors, and not to maintain their identity, size and traditional forms With some of the main features of the dome and the minaret remain unchanged.</p> Laith Sadiq Al-Asadi , Mustafa Ayad Mohsin Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Effect of Nano Fuel Additives on the Characteristics of Diesel Engine Fed with Biodiesel Blended Fuel <p>A Numerical analysis for the effect of different Nano particles concentrations on the diesel engine characteristics fired with biodiesel blended fuel is investigated in the work. The simulation software Diesel-rk has been used in this work. The biodiesel under focus is castor methyl ester (CME) which is derived from castor oil via transesterification process. The impact of Nano particles is studied by using three doses of Al<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> (25, 50, 100 ppm) mixed with B20% CME which is confirmed from previous studies as the best compromise ratio. Generally it's found that with use of Nano particles along with biodiesel fuel, the cylinder pressure, delay period, combustion temperature decreases. Noticeable enhancements in the brake thermal efficiency and fuel consumption have been recorded.&nbsp; The results reported dramatic reductions in smoke values, NOx emissions as well as Particulate matter (PM), hence this way can fight trade-off relation (PM-NOx). The findings showed, best concentration of Nano particles was 25 ppm as no dramatic effect was observed beyond this dose. The validity of the numerical results is checked out with other experimental results at the same condition of operation.</p> Mohammed S. Edam, Mohamed F. Al – Dawody Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences The Strategy of Imitating Traditions and Customs in Contemporary Architextile <p>Culture is one of the influences on the products of architecture. It is common to say that architecture is a mirror of culture, Language, gestures and intellectual products are influenced by culture, The customs, traditions of a given society play an important role in some products architecture, These hidden aspects of physical products are subject to the traditions and customs of the society in which they exist, An example of these products was the "Architextile", which constituted an important aspect of the human civilization's first production and since its creation to the human societies, as the human intertwined between the traditions and customs of the societies to which he belong and the product of his creations and is evident in architecture, The research discusses the subject of imitation strategies of traditions and customs", which has emerged in the distinctive architectural products of man and throughout the ages, Where many studies have touched on this output, but from many aspects, and did not shed light on the strategy of imitating the customs and traditions of the communities in which the production is located, Hence, the research problem emerged "the lack of comprehensiveness of previous studies of the role of the strategy of imitating traditions and customs in achieving the aesthetic, functional and performance dimensions of contemporary architextile, From the emergence of the research problem, the objective of the research was determined. Based on the previous studies (literary, historical and architectural), "a comprehensive theoretical framework was developed that illustrates the strategy of imitating traditions and customs and their role in achieving the aesthetic, functional and performance dimensions of contemporary architextile," The development of the main and secondary vocabulary, Then subtract and analyze the final findings and conclusions.</p> Safaa AL-Deen H. Ali , Ban Mohammed Sultan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences Optimal Siting of Park and Ride Facilities Using Geospatial Approach <p>The significant increase in car ownership has been recognized as one of the main reasons for traffic congestion worldwide, especially in city centers. Park-and-ride (P&amp;R) facilities, which are car parks where users can adjust to public transportation to carry on their journeys, have long been used as an effective solution to mitigate congestion issues without affecting traffic demand. However, literature on the optimal localization of these facilities using geospatial approaches are still emerging. Feasible locations of P&amp;R facilities are of crucial importance not only for users but also to local authorities and the environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the significance of several factors affecting optimal locations of P&amp;R using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and to propose a multi-criteria geospatial approach to locate optimal park and ride facilities in Karbala, Iraq. Three key aspects are tested in the localization process, including users’ coverage, accessibility to major roads, and area availability using Geospatial Tool. The case study on the holy city of Karbala in Iraq was implemented and the results show that the optimization model is proved to be powerful in providing more optimal locations of P&amp;R facilities. The paper concludes with a discussion of the practical implications, research limitations and future research directions.</p> Huda Alghazali, Hussein Attya, Shakir Al-Busaltan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences