Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong><span style="color: #2969b0; font-family: Georgia, serif;">J</span></strong><span style="font-family: Georgia,serif;">ournal of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">U</span></strong>niversity of&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">B</span></strong>abylon for&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">E</span></strong>ngineering&nbsp;<strong><span style="color: #2969b0;">S</span></strong>ciences&nbsp;<strong>(<span style="color: #2969b0;">JUBES</span>)</strong> is a peer-reviewed open access journal, monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers covering all aspects of recent advances in engineering dealing with:&nbsp;&nbsp; </span></span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Electrical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Mechanical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Material Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Civil Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Chemical Engineering</span></li> <li class="show"><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">Architectural Engineering</span></li> </ul> <p><span style="font-family: Georgia, serif; font-size: 12pt;">&nbsp;ISSN:&nbsp;<strong>‎<a href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2616-9916#" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2616-9916</a></strong></span></p> en-US info@journalofbabylon.com (Info.) jub@itnet.uobabylon.edu.iq (Hayder Faisal) Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.1.2.1 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Rainfall Returns Periods in Iraq https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2288 <p class="Default" style="margin-bottom: 8.0pt; text-align: justify; text-indent: 1.0cm;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Rainfall date obtained for thirty-two meteorological stations distributed in Iraq to find the rainfall returns period, which contributes in the improvement of water management plans all over Iraq, especially during dry seasons. Mean annual summation of rainfall has a symmetrical increasing pattern from southern west towards northern east, according to the increasing ratio of rainfall in the northern region of Iraq.</span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; color: windowtext;"> The </span><span style="font-size: 10.0pt;">northern east region of Iraq has characterized by very abnormal and abnormal events regarding rainfall (P) in term of return periods, while the northern west, middle and southern regions characterize by a normal distribution of rainfall. , Iraq has only two types of weather conditions, according to rainfall returns periods: the humid weather condition located in the northern east part and dry weather condition in the other parts of it.</span></p> Hussein Ilaibi Zamil Al-Sudani Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2288 Tue, 21 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Kinematics Simulation of Gough-Stewart Parallel Manipulator by Using Simulink Package in Matlab Software https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2289 <p>The Gough Stewart Robotic manipulator is a parallel manipulator with six-degree of freedom, which has six equations of Kinematics (Inverse and forward), with six variables (Lengths, Position, and Orientation). In this work derived the inverse equations, which used to compute the lengths of the linkages and its changes depended on the position and orientation of the platform's center, then derived the forward equations to calculate the position and orientation of the moving platform in terms of the lengths. This theoretical model of the kinematics analysis of the Gough Stewart has been built into the Simulink package in Matlab to obtain the lengths, position, and orientation for the manipulator at any time of motion. The input parameters (Position and Orientation) in inverse blocks compared with the output parameters (Position and Orientation) in the forward blocks, which show good results.</p> Hassan Mohammed Alwan, Riyadh Ahmed Sarhan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2289 Tue, 21 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Ecology & Its Applications in Local Architecture https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2290 <p style="text-align: justify;">The theories of interaction with the environment, considered as the most important and efficient theories currently in use, especially in the local urban environment, which has become far from the interaction with the environment. From here, we note that there is a lack of knowledge about the simulation of the performance of the interaction with the local environment through a computer model in order to achieve thermal comfort for users and rationalize the use of local environmental resources. Therefore, the research presents a theoretical framework for the definition of feasibility, its potential and its applications in an attempt to reduce the gap between technological development in the world, especially in the possibilities of simulating interaction with the environment, and the local reality. It also provides a practical framework through the application of computer simulations based on the analysis of a set of theories and to find the efficiency of its performance. This application is based on the creation of a virtual model of a multi-story building before and after the application of computer simulation and trying to achieve better thermal comfort values ​​for the occupants of the building through the use of a certain programs, most notably (Rhino, Grasshopper, RayMan). The results showed the efficiency of using computer simulation programs to achieve better thermal value for the occupants. The research led to the development of a local multi-storey building that is climate efficient by following the design mechanisms derived from the climate of the region and thus achieving a climatic environment with optimal performance according to the comfort standards Thermal.</p> Munaf Adnan Talib, Zaynab Radi Abaas Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2290 Tue, 21 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Simulation Analysis of Combined Flow over and under Semi-Cylindrical Structure https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2291 <p style="text-align: justify;">Combined flow over and under structure may solve the problem of the deposit of suspension materials in channels. Semi-cylindrical shape reduces the curvature of streamlines which reflected on its performance. To study how this shape performs, experimental and simulation has been done. The laboratory models were of four different diameters and four different gate openings. The same physical structures have been modeled in commercial software, FLOW-3D®, by employing RNG k- ε turbulence model. The verification has been based on measured flow profile and discharge. Simulation outputs indicate that a separation zone located at a distance from the structure became farther when the diameter and gate opening decreases, also the separation portions and their thickness are related to the incoming discharge.&nbsp; The location height of separation zone tends to be lower when there is an increase in flow discharge and it is located at half the total depth when two flow portions are equal. The weir flow in this system shows a better performance than traditional weir by at least 33%, while the gate out flow is less than free flow of the same total head by 70% to 90%. Within the limitation of this work, two mathematical models for predicting discharge coefficient have been proposed for the weir and gate respectively, moreover a model for predicting relative discharge of weir to gate, and one mathematical model for the dimensionless total discharge.</p> Shaker Abdulatif Jalil Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2291 Tue, 21 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Towards Sustainable Middle Eastern Cities: A Local Sustainability Assessment Framework https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2321 <p style="text-align: justify;">To assist in making Middle Eastern cities more sustainable a guiding methodological framework for local sustainability assessment is key to achieving a sustainable future. This paper investigates available frameworks and develops an approach to local sustainability assessment (LSA), by constructing a methodological framework utilising a combination of (bottom-up) and (top-down) approaches. This facilitates the formulation, selection and prioritisation of key indicators, which can then guide the assessment of a city’s sustainability at a local level in the Middle East. The paper finally applies the LSA methodological framework to the Iraqi city of Hilla and succeeds in formulating and ranking 57 useful and valid sustainability indicators.</p> Mustafa Al-Alwani, Steve Goodhew, Wei Pan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2321 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Structural Characteristics of Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Beams https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2293 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper aims to investigate the structural behavior of reinforced lightweight concrete beams. Attapulgite aggregate and crushed clay brick aggregate were used as coarse lightweight aggregate to produce structural lightweight aggregate concrete with 25 Mpa and 43.6 Mpa cube compressive strength and 1805 Kg/m<sup>3</sup> and 1977 Kg/m<sup>3</sup> oven dry density respectively. The result of reinforced lightweight concrete beams compared with reinforced normal weight concrete beams, which have 50.5 Mpa cylinder compressive strength and 2317 Kg/m<sup>3</sup> oven dry density. For each type of concrete two reinforced concrete beams with (1200 mm length × 180 mm height × 140 mm width), one of them tested under symmetrical two-points load STPL (a/d = 2.2) and another one tested under one-point load OPL (a/d=3.3) at 28 days. The experimental program shows that a structural lightweight aggregate concrete can be produced by using Attapulgite aggregate with 25 MPa cube compressive strength and 1805 Kg/m<sup>3</sup> oven dry density and by using crushed clay brick aggregate with 43.6 MPa cube compressive strength and 1977 Kg/m<sup>3</sup> oven dry density. The weight of Attapulgite aggregate concrete and crushed clay bricks aggregate concrete beam specimens were lower than normal weight aggregate concrete beams by about 20.56% and 13.65% respectively at 28 days. &nbsp;As for the ultimate load capacities of beam specimens, the ultimate load of Attapulgite aggregate concrete beams tested under STPL were lower than that of crushed clay bricks aggregate concrete beams and normal weight aggregate concrete beams by about 4.85% and 5% respectively. While the ultimate load capacities of reinforced Attapulgite concrete beams tested under OPL were lower than that of reinforced crushed clay bricks aggregate concrete beams and reinforced normal weight aggregate concrete beams by about 10.3% and 10.5% respectively. Finally, Attapulgite aggregate concrete and crushed clay bricks aggregate concrete showed ductility and toughness less than that of Normal weight aggregate concrete.</p> Sajjad abdulameer badar, Laith Shakir Rasheed, Shakir Ahmed Salih Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2293 Wed, 22 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Statistical and Experimental Study of the Stretching Force for 6061 Aluminum Alloy Using post stretching and pre strecting processes https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2294 <p style="text-align: justify;">An experiment and a statistic study was performed considering the effect of two important input parameters (stretching force and stretching speed) on the stretching behaviour of 6061-0 aluminum sheet in terms of thickness reduction ratio in two types of stretch forming process (post stretching and pre stretching). Experimental tests were carried out using a die with V-shape to stretch the sheet at two selected levels of stretching force and stretching speed and according to the design matrices established by the Design of Experiment (DOE) software (Version 10). Two models with two variable parameters, i.e. stretching force and speed&nbsp; were built by using the response surface methodology (RSM) technique for the two cases of stretching (post and pre stretching), then checked statistically for adequacy purpose by analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis, and appeared good with 95 % confidence level. It was found that using the post stretch forming process generally gives a lower thickness reduction ratio than that for pre stretching process. This explains the advantages of using post-stretching process to stretch the 6061-0 aluminum sheet alloy.</p> Sadiq Jaffar Aziz, Mohammed Dahkil Abbas Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2294 Sun, 26 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 "Planning and Design Indicators for Hospitals of Blood Diseases and Tumors in Iraq" https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2301 <p style="text-align: justify;">The hospitals of blood diseases and tumors are among the most important specialized hospitals, which aim to improve the health situation in general and patients with blood and tumors in particular through the provision of a comprehensive hospital for tumors, radiotherapy and chemical as well as guidance services and social awareness, and although most of the local hospitals are within the minimum standards of global standards, but they do not meet local privacy, which requires the development of design indicators and are in line with local reality.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The problem of research has become "<strong>limited local studies that dealt with the planning and design indicators of the space dimensions of the hospitals of blood diseases and tumors rules and mechanisms of work in terms of functional, environmental, structural, social and precautionary"</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In light of the research problem, the research goal was to "<strong>identify comprehensive indicators in the light of advanced global experiences as a measure of all the components and indicators of planning and design systems for hospital buildings of blood diseases and tumors".</strong></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">To extract the vocabulary of the theoretical framework and apply it to the selected research sample, and then to present the orthographic results of the design and planning of hospitals of blood diseases and local tumors.</p> Zainab Ali Abdulwaheed, Bahjat Rashsd Shahin Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2301 Sun, 26 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Theory of Constraints in Construction Projects https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2302 <p style="text-align: justify;">Construction projects in Iraq are suffering from constraints (financial, technical, political, legal and environmental) that hamper their work. It is therefore necessary to identify these constraints by following the theories in order to accurately identify and provide useful information to make decisions about production constraints and their impact on work. To achieve its objectives or achieve a level of performance for this goal, so it is necessary to use some theories, including theories of constraints that identify those obstacles and find solutions to those obstacles through the schemes of thinking. The concept of constraints is defined as "a comprehensive management philosophy that aims to achieve a continuous achievement of more than one goal in a project." If the project works to achieve a certain achievement in a project after defining the constraints and types and each according to its importance and impact, Which provides a comprehensive framework for the work of projects, as it helps to identify and treat the obstacles experienced by the projects and work to identify appropriate solutions and through a set of logical thinking throughput that begin studying the current reality of the project that suffers from the obstacles and then search for&nbsp; Constraints A number of proposed solutions are then presented. These solutions are examined and the future results of each solution are identified and useful in addressing the specific problem and the extent of the future impact of its application. The methodology used in the research of extracting indicators from the theoretical and practical framework and finding solutions through the curriculum of the thinking throughput will be used to reach a number of conclusions and recommendations aimed at achieving its objectives</p> Mustafa Hassan Talib, Afrah Mohammed Hassan Kashkol Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2302 Sun, 26 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Study of Wickless Heat Pipe with Flat Evaporator for Used in Cooling of Electronic Components https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2303 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this paper, systematic experimental investigations were carried out for a wickless heat pipe with flat evaporator having dimensions (100x100x30) mm. Flat-square electrical element was used to simulate the heat source of electronic part with dimensions of (100x100) mm. The aim of this paper presents the effect of fill ratio and cooling water mass flow rate on thermal performance of a wickless heat pipe. Experiments were performed to evaluate performance of wickless heat pipe for range of input power from 10 W to 100 W. The fill ratios used in the present work were 15%, 25%50% and 85%. The cooling water mass flow rate was also changed from 0.0083 kg/s to 0.033 kg/s. Experimental results showed that the maximum value of wall evaporator temperature was 115°C at input power of 100 W and a fill ratio of 15%. Results also showed that the maximum value of the total resistance was 0.8°C/W.</p> Samah Ihsan Adnan, Aouf Abdulrahman Ahmad, Adnan Abdulamar Abdulrasool Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2303 Sun, 26 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Response of Sweet Pepper Capsicum Annulus L. (Qurtuba Cultivar) To Spraying With Two Types of Potassium Fertilizer Cultivated In Plastic House https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2322 <p style="text-align: justify;">Field experiment was conducted in the non-heated plastic house at Al-Mussaib Technical College in the autumn season 2016 to study the Response of sweet pepper <em>Capsicum annuum</em> L. (Qurtuba cultivar) to foliar spraying with two types of foliar commercial Potassium fertilizers in loamy sand soil. To study the effect of four levels of potassium fertilizer and micronutrients (0, 4, 6, 8 ml.L<sup>-1</sup>), four levels of potassium fertilizer and Sulfur KTS (0, 2, 4, 6 ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) and their interaction on some vegetative and flowering growth indicators, yield and its components. The experiment was designed according to the Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and the averages were compared with the least significant difference (LSD), with a significant level of 5%. The result indicated to the excelling of the spraying treatment with potassium and micronutrient (8 ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) by giving it a significant level in increasing the averages of plant height, number of branches, leaf area, dry weight for total&nbsp; vegetative, number of flowers in plant, percentage of fruit set, the leaves content of (chlorophyll, nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium), early and total yield, the content of vitamin C, and percentage of Total Soluble Solids, with an increasing percentage of (19.47, 29.54, 16.68, 30.01, 11.26, 24.09, 38.16, 24.36, 16.67, 34.00, 21.87, 20.27, 50.46, 45.96, 39.33, 70.85%), respectively, compared to control treatment. &nbsp;Which is the same behavior as spraying treatment with potassium fertilizer and sulfur, where treatment (4 ml.L<sup>-1</sup>) was excelled in all the above traits, where the percentages of increasing were (31.72, 53.53, 49.88, 15.82, 14.84, 24.54, 19.79, 36.73, 21.05, 47.55, 24.53, 19.07, 49.43, 48.01, 30.29, 36.56%), respectively, compared to the control treatment. As for interaction treatments, it has showed excelling the spraying treatment with a mixture of (8 ml. L<sup>-1</sup> + 4 ml. L<sup>-1</sup>) by giving it the highest values for all the above traits amounted of (109.5 cm, 6.4 branches, 25.3 dm<sup>2</sup>, 132.7 g, 62.7 flower, 43.9% 2.22%, 0.75%, 2.55%, 34.6 fruits, 108.3 g, 0.790 kg. plant<sup>-1</sup>, 3.747 kg. plant<sup>-1</sup>, 69.2 mg.100 ml<sup>-1</sup>, 10.4%), respectively.</p> Mohammad T. Abo Al-Mikh, Sabah L. Assi, Hameed K. Abdul-Ameer Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2322 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Indicators of the Mosque as a Social Type https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2323 <p style="text-align: justify;">Sustainability emerged as a general trend in architecture within its dimensions (environmental, economic, and social) which affected on certain types of buildings especially the modern mosque architecture. The social dimension of sustainability represents the area of research interest, as it does not show the extent of its influence in determining the design characteristics of the mosque's architecture. hence, the research problem was (lack of knowledge perception of the mosque indicators that make it a social type and the absence of a clear vision of the vocabulary most achieved in local modern mosque as well as the nature of the criteria that determines the acceptance of this type of mosques within the local community).According to this the research goals are (Identify the indicators that characterize the mosque as a social type, determine the nature of the most achieved indicators within the local model, determine the index nature&nbsp; of the collective acceptance for this building type.)</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The research determined the indicators that characterised mosque as social type and found that they are related to the indicators related to making place and living occupancy of social sustainability. These affected on layout, spatial organization and formal aspects of mosque.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The local mosque achieved these indicators &nbsp;partially and its design was closer to the model of the social mosque within its vocabulary which was reflected within layout and spatial aspect as it was more accomplished.as well as &nbsp;The research concluded that the cultural background and the living level of the recipient represent the nature of the indicator that responsible for common acceptance for this type although it does not represent a new type of mosques, but represent an extension of the comprehension functional role of the Prophet's Mosque.</p> Zainab Huseen Ra’ouf Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2323 Wed, 29 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Sample Length on the Time Needed to Reach the Steady State Case https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2306 <p style="text-align: justify;">In this study, ANSYS-14 was used to study the effect of the length of the sample on the time needed to reach steady state (S.S.t) for the transient heat transfer.&nbsp; Three samples were studied in different lengths (15, 30 and 45 cm), 2 cm high, in addition to the selection of three materials with different thermal properties and applied to different lengths. One side of the three samples was exposed to a temperature at 100 ° C, while the other side was exposed to thermal load at 25 ° C and the sample was isolated from the top and bottom surfaces. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of the time reach to the steady state when changing the length of the sample exposed to constant thermal load and materials, depending on the distance from the hot face of all lengths at a number of points (3, 6, 9 and 12) cm. From the results of the time obtained numerically from the ANSYS-14 &nbsp;program, the time to reach the steady state was determined when the difference between the sample temperature reached with the previous grade of 0.001.The results indicated that the time required to reach the steady state (S.S.t) increases by increasing the length of the sample in the selected points when constant thermal diffusivity (α) ,where the time needed to reach the steady state of the copper material ranged between (879-1085) seconds at a length of 15 cm and (2112- 3005) seconds at length 30 cm and (2871-4937) seconds at a length of 45 cm as well as the results showed that the time required to reach the steady state increased with the thermal diffusivity decrease where the time required to reach the steady state of the copper of the highest thermal diffusivity ranged between (879-4937) seconds for all lengths while the time required to reach the steady state of the material of the lowest thermal diffusivity (hardboard) is between (168400-1078000) seconds.</p> Mohsin Obaid Muhi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2306 Tue, 28 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Temperature Difference Effect between Two Samples Ends on the Inception of Thermal Sensitivity https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2307 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper examined the effect of the difference between the temperature of the two end of the body exposed to transient conduction heat transfer on the inception of thermal sensitivity and at different distances from the hot end of the sample. The study was based on the selection of a sample with a length of 15 cm and a fixed height of 1 cm. Four materials with different thermal properties were selected. One end of the model was exposed to three different temperatures (75, 125, and 175) <sup>o</sup>C. The other end of the sample was placed under a convection heat transfer at 25 <sup>o</sup>C. To adopt an inception indicator of thermal sensitivity of the sample when exposed to transient heat transfer, (26) <sup>o</sup>C was used because it is the nearest temperature to the initial condition of the sample. Four points were selected on different distance from hot end along the sample. The hot end temperature was also adopted as an indicator to measure the effect of the temperature difference for two body ends as the other end is subject to constant transient heat transfer.&nbsp;&nbsp; Determine the effect of the temperature difference&nbsp;&nbsp; between two body ends exposed to transient heat transfer on the inception of thermal sensitivity is study target. The&nbsp; results of this study showed&nbsp; the reverse effect of the temperature difference&nbsp;&nbsp; between two body ends&nbsp; exposed to transient heat transfer on the inception of thermal sensitivity, this effect increases by increasing the distance from&nbsp; hot sample end&nbsp;&nbsp; and depressing of thermal diffusivity. The results also showed that the values of the Thermal sensitivity inception ranged between (0.43-17845) seconds according to the&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; distance from the hot end, its temperature, and the thermal diffusivity of sample materials for each case.</p> Ridha Hameed Majeed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2307 Tue, 28 May 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Efficiency of Synchronous and Asynchronous Buck-Converter at Low Output Current. https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2337 <p>In this paper both synchronous and asynchronous buck-converter were designed to work in continuous conduction mode “CCM” and to deliver small load current. Then the two topologies were tested in terms of efficiency at small load current by use of &nbsp;different values of switching frequencies (range from 150 KHz to 1MHz) and three separated values of duty-cycle (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8). &nbsp;</p> <p>Obtained results turns out that efficiency of both synchronous and asynchronous buck-converter “<strong><em>switching step-down voltage regulator</em></strong>” responds in a negative manner to the increase in the switching frequency. However, this impact is being stronger in synchronous topology because of magnifying effect of losses related to switching frequency compared to those related to conduction when working at small load currents; this behavior makes obtained efficiency of both topologies in convergent levels when they operated to deliver small output current especially when working with higher switching frequencies. Larger duty-cycle can rise up the efficiency of both topologies.</p> Ismael Khaleel Murad Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2337 Sun, 09 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Bioactive Glasses in Dental Applications (Literature Review) https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2339 <p>Bioactive glasses are silicate-grounded and can course of action a strong substance connect through the tissues. These biomaterials are exceptionally biocompatible and can shape a hydroxyapatite layer when embedded in the body or absorbed the recreated body liquid. Because of a few detriments, regular glass preparing technique, including softening of glass parts is supplanted by sol-gel strategy with a substantial number of advantages, for example, low handling temperature, higher immaculateness and homogeneity and along these lines better control of bioactivity. Bioactive glasses have a wide scope of utilizations, especially in dentistry. These glasses can be utilized as particulates or solid shapes and permeable or thick develops in various applications, for example, remineralization or extreme touchiness treatment. A few properties of bioactive glasses, for example, antibacterial properties can be advanced by including diverse components into the glass. Bioactive glasses can likewise be utilized to adjust diverse biocompatible materials that should be bioactive. This investigation surveys the critical advancements of bioactive glasses in dentistry. Besides, we will examine the field of bioactive glasses from starting to the present advancements, which incorporates preparing techniques, applications, and properties of these glasses.</p> Ola Saleh Mahdi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2339 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Gravel Size and Weir Height on Flow Properties of Gabions https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2340 <p>The variation between flow depth generated in front of gabion barrier and flow rate has been studied in open laboratory flume. Flow profiles have been observed for each of "Transition Flow" and "Overflow" regimes. Effects of gabion height and material coarseness on the upstream flow depth are studied by testing four different gabion heights and four different medium aggregate sizes. The analysis of experimental results showed that the relative decrease in flow depth varies between 38% and 17% for "Through Flow" type when material coarseness and discharge increase. In "Transition Flow" regime, increasing material coarseness and discharge causes an average decreases in relative flow depth of 7.6% and 4.4% for gabion heights 15cm and 30cm, respectively. Gabion begins to operate as an overflow weir when the average water depth to the gabion height (H/P) is 1.19. While the overall average increase in discharge relative to solid weir is 15%. Prediction relationships for flow depth upstream the gabion for each of the three flow regimes is suggested. Also, dimensionless relation to predict discharge coefficient are proposed with good accuracy.</p> Shaker A.Jalil, Sarhan A. Sarhan , Bshkoj S. Hussein, Jihan M. Qasim Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2340 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Forecasting Monthly Maximum Temperatures in Kerbala Using Seasonal ARIMA Models. https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2341 <p>Weather forecasting is an important issue in meteorology and scientific research.In this research,&nbsp;the Seasonal Auto Regressive.Integrated Moving Average.(ARIMA) model which is based on&nbsp;Box-Jenkins&nbsp;method was adopted to build the forecasting model. The max. Monthly temperature&nbsp;data for Kerbala&nbsp;city for the period (Jan.1980&nbsp;to Dec.2016) was employed. The autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions&nbsp;for time&nbsp;series data from years 1980 to 2015 were used to identify the most appropriate orders of the&nbsp;ARIMA models. The validation test of these models were performed using the monthly max. Temperature of the year 2016. To calculate the model's accuracy and compare among them, statistical criteria such as MAE, RMSE, MAPE, and R<sup>2</sup> were used. The model (2, 1, 2) × (1, 1, 1)<sub>12</sub> gave the most accurate results and used to forecast the monthly max. Temperature&nbsp;for the period (2017 to 2021) for study region.</p> Adnan K. Shathir , Layla Ali Mohammed Saleh , Sumayah Amal Al-Din Majeed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2341 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Production of Copper Powder from Ores by Elecrodeposition Process https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2342 <p>This paper studies the preparation of Copper powder from copper sulphate aqueous solution (CuSO<sub>4</sub>.5H<sub>2</sub>O), sulfuric acid (H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>) and copper chloride (CuCl<sub>2</sub>.2H<sub>2</sub>O) by using the process of electrodeposition. Process of Powder deposition has been investigated for copper powder; it is a fine layer on cathode electrode by using the value of different from time of deposition (15, 30, 45, and 60) min. it is noticed the weight of the powder rises with the rise of time of depostion.</p> <p>Diffractions of X-ray (XRD) revealed high crystallinity and pure copper powder not contain impurity or oxides. Optical microscopes have revealed the particles of copper have dendritic shapes. The size of Particles analyzer measured the size of a particle which is about (4.645) μm.</p> Sundus Abbas Jasim, Sajad Abd Al-kadhum Mohsin, Maithem Ammory Jaafer Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2342 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Review: Recent Directions in ECG-FPGA Researches https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2344 <p>The last few years witnessed an increased interest in utilizing field programmable gate array (FPGA) for a variety of applications. This utilizing derived mostly by the advances in the FPGA flexible resource configuration, increased speed, relatively low cost and low energy consumption. The introduction of FPGA in medicine and health care field aim generally to replace costly and usually bigger medical monitoring and diagnostic equipment with much smaller and possibly portable systems based on FPGA that make use of the design flexibility of FPGA. Many recent researches focus on FPGA systems to deal with the well-known yet very important electrocardiogram (ECG) signal aspects to provide acceleration and improvement in the performance as well as finding and proposing new ideas for such implementations. The recent directions in ECG-FPGA are introduced in this paper.</p> Mohammed Khalid Ibrahim, Ahmed A. Hamad, Murad Obaid Abed, Riyadh Abdulhamza Mohammed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2344 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Evaporative Cooling Combined with Heat Sink on PV Module Performance https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2345 <p>A pin fins array as a heat sink along with a moist wood wool pad to serve as novel cooling system to cool PV panel has been used. The present cooling system was based on the evaporative cooling concept and extended area of heat transfer. The results gave enhancements in output power and panel’s efficiency about 32.7% and 31.5% respectively.&nbsp; This improvement in the module performance was attributed to the reduction in the operation temperature of the solar cell. The reduction in module temperature was about 26.05%.</p> Ibtisam Ahmed Hasan, Iman Saleh kareem, Duha Adil Attar Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2345 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 A Review Paper on Concrete-Filled Aluminum Tubular Columns https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2347 <p>The aim of this review paper is to summarize available reports, papers, theses, dissertations and conference papers dealing with the performance of aluminum-concrete composite columns. Hollow aluminum sections filled with concrete have been used as composite columns due to their corrosion resistance, easy production, appearance and lightweight. Many researches were performed in the area of concrete-filled hollow sections (tubes). However, there are few researches have been performed on concrete-filled aluminum tubes. In this review, different available published papers are summarized to view the type of the studied aluminum-concrete columns and the main studied parameters that affecting the behavior of these composite columns. More than (190) specimens are collected and showed in this review.</p> Ahmed Sagban Saadoon , Kadhim Zuboon Nasser Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2347 Mon, 10 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Experimental Study of Multi Effect stages PV Panels Solar Still to Enhance the Productivity by Utilizing Water Heater and Cooling Fan. https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2362 <p>A deserted reign always suffers from lack of pure water in a large part of its area. In this area, valuable fresh water from swamps or ground water wells is salt water, and it is necessary purified or distillated.&nbsp; In the current experimental study, a new design is made to improve the yield of fresh water of a pyramid solar still by using an immersion type DC- water heater. It investigates the effect of an external fan to cool the glass surface. The Experiment was take placed in the summer season in Iraq conditions at latitude (33.2 ° N). A solar still with 32.5°glass slope angle is chosen in our work. As the productivity of a solar still is more for low water depths, the water level in the bottom basin maintained at 3 cm. The experimental outcomes observed that the yield of fresh water increased by a significant 370% when DC water heater each having 350 W capacities was used. During used the external cooling fan the productivity of fresh water was existed to decrease by (7%) and (15%) for wind speeds of (7 m/s) and (9 m/s) respectively. A good comparison takes placed with other experimental study was taken.</p> Ali A. F. Al-Hamadani, Altaf Hameed Yaseen Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2362 Sun, 23 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Reactive Metakaolin Prepaird by Thermal Shock on Some Mechnical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2403 <p>Metakaolin is a very active alumino-silicate pozzolan commonly used recently in many applications of concrete. In this research Metakaolin was used in production of self-compaction concrete with (20%) replacement of cement by weight. It was prepared by burning natural kaolin Clays at different temperatures (700, 750 , 850) C<sup>o </sup>&nbsp;using thermal shock &nbsp;method and for periods of time ( 0.5 , 1 , 2 ) hours. Fresh self-compacting concrete (SCC) properties, some of mechanical properties were tested at age (28, 56, 90) day. &nbsp;The findings demonstrate that the fresh properties of SCC are affect by the change of temperature and duration of calcining slightly, while the compressive strength enhanced with increasing of temperature and duration of calcining. The best result is obtained at degree of 850 C<sup>o</sup> and one-hour calcining duration, while the strength development at (56 day) age was (15.6%) and at (90 day) age was (26.7%). A better enhancement outcome in flexural strength and ultra-sonic plus velocity were at the same temperature and duration of calcining, the development of modulus of rupture at (56 days) was (7%) and at (90 days) it was (15.5 %), while the ultra-sonic plus velocity reached at the age of (28 days ) (4.52 km\sec).</p> Dalya Hekmat Hameed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2403 Wed, 17 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 ¬¬¬¬¬ General Consideration over the Bauhaus Material Practice: The Case of Modern Monument; Siedlung Gropius Törten Estate at Dessau, Germany https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2445 <p>As a remarkable case of being modern monument of Bauhaus style and social functionalist housing, <em>Siedlung Gropius Törten</em> Estate of Dessau needs some reassessment in architectural material study, as those are rare in todays practice. The research problem is, it is not rational to bring back the original materials again. To find out both modern facilities and original appearance in alternative choices, would be challenge as well. To introduce sustainable material practice for preset day composite conservation oriented practice accordingly, would be the research question of this study. And it should be done without any maltreatment to the originals. An investigative survey, literature review and collaboration with building and finishing material experts, were adopted as method. To cope with the specifics of Dessau, some potentials of localization and substitutions of contemporary installation were advocated after such meticulous observation. Tentative recommendations based on results, might demonstrate the possible links for further maintainable remodeling regarding the distinct architectural expression in alternative, possible preservation material practice. Such results of explicit survey will also reveal the various potentials in building and finishing material conservation technique in the future. The study will determine and establish that the Bauhaus aesthetics and its authentic value are dependent over all these materials.</p> Sayed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon for Engineering Sciences http://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/CopyrightandLicensing https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBES/article/view/2445 Thu, 22 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000