https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/issue/feed Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities 2019-12-16T05:42:49+00:00 Info. info@journalofbabylon.com Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for Humanities, (<span style="color: rgb(255, 102, 0);"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p align="justify" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p align="justify" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="https://extranet.issn.org/resource/issn/2617-0906" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2663 Iraq's Application of International Standards Relating to Victims of Terrrism تطبيق العراق للمعايير الدولية المتعلقة بحماية ضحايا الارهاب 2019-12-14T09:42:13+00:00 Mohamed Gazi Al-janaby mjjanaby@gmail.com Kahtan Adnan Aziz kahtan2012@yahoo.com <p>The unusual increase armed conflicts around the world beside terrorist attacks happening in many countries that all led to serious violations of human rights and international humanitarian law have become a great concern for the international community due to a large number of victims caused by such acts. The unprecedented increase in the number of victims has led to the adoption of particular legal rules focusing on the legal status of the victims at the international level. This encouraged some to suggest that there has been now a new branch of international law called international law of victims. The legal status of victims of terrorism, however, has had less attention due to the main focus on countering terrorism itself. This is</p> <p>however, has changed with the increase in the number of victims of terrorism, particularly with the emergence of what is called the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria. This why there have been more legal rules focusing on the rights of victims of terrorism. These rights have also been adopted at the national level. Iraq is one of the countries which issued a law on the rights of victims of terrorism. This law is no 20 (2009) Compensation for Victims of Military Operations، Military Mistakes and Terrorist Actions as amended by law no 75 (2015). Accordingly, this study aims to explore and analyse the international legal rules relating to the rights of victims of terrorist actions and to review the international efforts represented by the relevant international treaties and decisions. This is to compare the international legal framework on the rights of victims of terrorism with the Iraqi legal system concerning such victims. The main aim of this comparison is to examine the extent to which Iraq law has managed to follow international standards relating to rights of victims of terrorism in order to identify strengths and weaknesses of the Iraqi law. This will be done through the study of the Law No. 20 on Compensation for Victims of Military Operations، Military Mistakes and Terrorist Actions 2009، as well as the First Amendment of this Law, represented by Law No. 57 Passed in 2015. This law constitutes the main legal basis for compensating victims of military operations and terrorist actions in Iraq.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2664 Physical Calendar According to Aerobic and Anaerobic Abilities and its Relation to the Accuracy of the Remote Aiming of Jumping for Young Players Handball التقويم البدني على وفق القدرات اللاهوائية والهوائية وعلاقته بدقة التصويب البعيد من القفز للاعبين 2019-12-14T09:49:54+00:00 Nabeel Kahdim Hrabid Ssoo_ssoo999@yahoo.com <p>Handball depends on the basic offensive skills, especially the skill of the correction and also the defensive skills, which has received a great development, which made it difficult to penetrate the players from the area of the near correction, which gave great importance to the long shot from jumping as it leads from outside the free throw area (99 meters), which is the distance&nbsp; . Therefore, the player needs a high level of aerobic and anaerobic abilities in order to succeed the remote correction, through the researcher to follow the youth handball league in the middle Euphrates area noticed the lack of use of this skill in most clubs, which reflected negatively on the results where they did not achieve achievements of competitive value, and these The problem suffered by the most youth teams in Iraq, especially in the Middle Euphrates region, therefore, the researcher considered the study and careful scientific follow-up in order to develop appropriate solutions to serve the handball in our beloved country, and the aims of the research to: About the goal.</p> <ul> <li>Identify aerobic and anaerobic abilities and accuracy of remote aiming of jumping for young players handball.</li> <li>Evaluation of aerobic and anaerobic abilities of young players handball.</li> </ul> <p>3- knowledge of the relationship between physical levels on the basis of aerobic and anaerobic abilities and accuracy of the correction of remote jumping of young players handball..<br>To develop a predictive equation for the accuracy of the performance of the4- correction far from jumping handball in terms of aerobic and anaerobic abilities expressing the physical evaluation of the players.</p> <p>the method of correlative relationships, the research community determined the players of the back line in the middle Euphrates clubs youth category for the season 2015-2016 and the number of (60) players and the community was taken in a comprehensive inventory to represent the research sample, the researcher conducted a global analysis of the variables and used standard scores and came out with equations Predictive The most important recommendations were:</p> <ul> <li>Extraction (four) factors through the process of factor analysis of aerobic and anaerobic capabilities have been accepted because they have met the conditions of acceptance of the worker..</li> <li>A physical evaluation model was constructed according to the aerobic and anaerobic abilities of the young players in the middle Euphrates clubs handball.</li> <li>There is a direct and significant correlation between the aerobic and anaerobic derived from the factor analysis with the accuracy of the skill of the correction far from jumping for youth handball.</li> <li>To develop definitive predictive equations through which to accurately predict the performance of the skill of the correction far from jumping in terms of indicators of physical evaluation of young players handball..</li> </ul> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2665 The Historical Roots of the Facts in the Kingdom of Heera Before Islam الجذور التاريخية للوضائع في مملكة الحيرة قبل الإسلام 2019-12-14T09:53:59+00:00 Ahmad Kadim Jawad ahmedkadhim@alkadhum-col.edu.iq <p>The history of the Arabs before Islam is full of political, military, social, cultural and even religious events, and there is a fertile ground for research and study at length. No historian can give us a pure history of impurities or flaws. It may be within the religious framework of writing history, national or geographic or physical reparations. State Sasanian is significant in Yemen is significant and in the northern Arab countries is significant as well as being among the participants of the verbal areas of the Arabian Peninsula, the formation of a Persian .alaudhaia expensive by Okasrh Persians to the rescue of the Arabs Manathira specifically to their rescue. Some historians differed in determining the goods, and this stems from the differences in news sources, some of them in Doser and some of them in the Shahba, and included historians updated on the same error. They had special areas inhabited by al-Musaleh. The Arabs realized that the task was to help the kings of confusion, so the value of the political warnings rose</p> <p>The cargo forces were highly skilled and capable because they contributed to the protection of the western side of the Sassanid state. Al-Wadan participated in the battles of Al-Manzira, which is linked to the Sassanid state and did not participate in the days of the Arabs or the internal war, and did not enter into any military or political alliance except the Al-Manzira. It seems that the desire to include forces in the Manatheer state was at the beginning of the founding of the Manatheer state, but clearly evolved during the reign of Yazdegerd, Bahram Gore, and the era of KusraAnoushirwan. The Persians had previous experiences in this regard that paid off. They are behind these forces, but the power of the Manzira has made it necessary for the Sassanids to treat the Arabs as political allies.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2666 The International Legal Basis of the Human Right to Water الاساس القانوني الدولي لحق الانسان في المياه 2019-12-14T09:58:56+00:00 Kahtan Adnan Aziz Kahtan2012@yahoo.com <p>Fresh water was formed one of the major challenges of the 21st century. This challenge includes the problem of freshwater availability, quality and inaccessibility. The freshwater problem scarcity&nbsp; will become much worse, especially with population and economic growth and potential climate change، which was combined by escalation in freshwater consumption and increasing demand it. International legal instruments and institutional measures will certainly be decisive and effective to deal with the growing water crisis. Consistent with the central role of water and its importance to all living things. In recent years, the United Nations General Assembly has held several conferences on water. Many international treaties have been concluded that explicitly or implicitly recognize the right to water as a human right, and call on states, international organizations and other relevant bodies to commit themselves to respect fundamental human rights, especially the human right to water.</p> <p>The aim of the research is to demonstrate the international legal basis and adequacy of the provisions on the nature of the human right to water. This will be done by reviewing the legal norms relating to the human right to water contained in international treaties explicitly or implicitly. These agreements varied according to the areas which organized it. This right has been studied in the provisions of</p> <p>international conventions in the field of international water law and</p> <p>international environmental law. It also examines the legal provisions of international treaties relating to international human rights and humanitarian law.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2667 Pesticides and their Effect on the Contamination of Agricultural Soils Between the Kefal Table and the River Oufi المبيدات واثرها على تلوث الترب الزراعية الواقعة بين جدول الكفل ونهر عوفي 2019-12-14T10:02:51+00:00 Kifaya Hassan Maitham Al-Yasiri Kifaya.hassan@uobablon.edu.iq <p>The study aims to investigate the pollution of agricultural soil located between the Kefal table and the Oufiriver as a suitable agricultural soil for growing fruits, vegetables and palm orchards, as it is one of the most important areas that feed the market with agricultural crops. It also includes many fields of poultry and cows, And the location of soil near the sources of surface water, which are from the table Kafl and the river Oufi, so studied in the field to know the effect of fertilizers and pesticides used in those soils. Five samples were randomly collected from the study area and laboratory analysis of each model (10) chemical and physical elements (2019) and its effect on soil, plant and human pollution was found to be non-polluted in the study area.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2668 Among the Names of the Prophets Between the Arabic and the Ajami in the Holy Quran (Study in Language and Derivation) من أسماء الأنبياء بين العربية والأعجمية في القرآن الكريم (دراسة في اللغة والاشتقاق) 2019-12-14T10:07:04+00:00 Edriss Hamad Hadi edres384@gmail.com <p>The Holy Quran is the first Arabic book, which is not come wrong from among his hands and not behind him download from Hakim Hamid, who declares the truth that he is an Arab manifest, the Koran came in the words of the inability of the Arabs to bring the example, and perhaps the Koran used names were not circle Among the Arabs, they had unusual or lost tongues, but God brought them back to use again; so I had the desire to look at this wonderful and admirable book. Between Arabic and English in the Holy Quran In the language and derivation). A selection of names was chosen, due to the large number of Quranic verses, and the narrow search for their complete fulfillment.</p> <p>The research came from the introduction of two passages. The first topic was the three names: Noah and Lot.</p> <p>The second study came to the names above the trilogy: Abraham, Isaac, Moses, Aaron, Elias and Elyasin. Following these two chapters, the results of the research were summarized.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2669 Technological Influence on Contemporary Art التأثير التكنولوجي على الفن التشكيلي المعاصر 2019-12-14T13:55:38+00:00 Habiba Bouzer bouzar2010@ymail.com <p>Art has undergone rapid and simultaneous changes, especially in recent times, due to the intellectual and cultural changes and the emergence of technology, which led to the emergence of new schools and trends and methods that are not recognized in ancient or classical art.</p> <p>Art has become a human characteristic not only for the elite but also for all people . This change in the inclusion of technology, whether linguistic, audio or visual, and the dynamics of the emergence of works of art &nbsp;can not be in isolation from multimedia performance and technology, and thus how the impact of technology on contemporary art? Where did these transformations occur? And what trends have emerged.</p> <p>My work is as follows: First we address the role of technology in demonstrating creative processes.<br>Second, new trends influenced by technology in the contemporary era III.</p> <p>Objective of the study: To show the state of scientific, technical and technical interaction in contemporary art. The emergence of technology.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2670 The Crime of Electronic Theft جريمة السرقة الالكترونية 2019-12-14T14:00:47+00:00 Ansam Sameer Tahir ansamsameer86@gmail.com <p>The issue of electronic theft is gaining increasing importance due to the exploitation of modern means of communication especially their use in banks through the electronic dealing and withdrawal of balances by magnetic card or electronic payment, as well as their use in the private life of individuals through registration and other areas that involve the use of computers.&nbsp; Electronic theft is different from other information crimes or any conventional crime stipulated in the Penal Code in terms of the necessity of having two basic pillars, a material and a moral corner, according to which the crime exists or does not exist.&nbsp; As a logical result, the punishment for such crimes should be specified and this is what we are trying to resolve in this research paper. Consequently, we will divide this paper into three sections. The first section deals with the concept of the crime of electronic theft, while the second section explicates the elements of the crime of electronic theft. The third section has been devoted to the statement of the crime of electronic theft. Finally, the research paper ends by providing a set of results and recommendations.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2671 The Verbs Attributed to Satan in the Koran is a Study of Significance لفاظ الأفعال المُسنَدَة إلى الشيطان في القرآن الكريم دراسة دلالية 2019-12-14T14:18:16+00:00 Huda Kahdem Waheed Huda3980@gmail.com Idris Hamad Hadi edres384@gmail.com <p>Praise be to Allaah. The one who stands steadfastly, who was not born, was not born, and had no one, and peace and blessings be upon the best of Muhammad and his family and companions.</p> <p>Arabic is a language of statement and magic, the word of which is only a subject and aims to achieve it, and sometimes the differences between the words only become clear after scrutiny and reflection, and the Koran came with words on the face of the inability of the Arabs to come up with some or all of them, and this great book was a style not His shrine only attains the knowledge and&nbsp;</p> <p>knowledge of the secrets and facts of what leads him to his goal, so it was my desire to search in this wonderful book admired</p> <p>The words that were attributed to the word (the devil) and which were acts of different meanings and formulas were chosen under the same title. Satan because of its abundance in the use of the Koran</p> <p>The research consisted of an entrance and five demands.</p> <p>1-1- Act (remove and remove)</p> <p>The act (sap)</p> <p>1.3- Acting (Lean and Dictated)</p> <p>Act (adorned)</p> <p>1.5 (verb waswasa)</p> <p>Following these five demands, a conclusion was made stating the most important results of the research. The last supplication is that Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, and peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and his family and companions</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2672 The Prophet's Covenant is the Foundation of an Accompanying Message الاصطلاح النبوي تأسيس الرسالة مصاحبة 2019-12-14T16:32:18+00:00 Kadhim Jasim Al-Azzawi kahdimalazzawi@gmail.com Qays Hamzah Al-Khafaji kahdimalazzawi@gmail.com <p>In the previous research (the accompanying letter), the two researchers defined the following: "It is the intent of the social speaker that is not declared in the expressionistic discourse (no matter how different his expressive instruments, speech, color, rhythm, gesture, etc.) , But that expressive discourse certainly carries with it a signal implied, or contains an element, a subtle way it ... "The researchers said in another research that" the accompanying letter in terms of clarity, at three degrees, are:</p> <p>1-Perceptual degree.&nbsp; 2-the degree of reflection. &nbsp;3-news degree.</p> <p>And the accompanying message - in the body of this research, which is the prophetic Hadith in general - the divine source.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2673 Formal and Integrative Transformations of the Image of the Goddess Ishtar in the Prints of the Ancient Iraqi Cylinder Seals التحولات الشكلية والمضامينية لصورة الآلهة عشتار في طبعات الأختام الأسطوانية العراقية القديمة 2019-12-14T16:37:59+00:00 Rasha Akram Mousa ahssan.alasady@yahoo.com <p>&nbsp;The current research (the formal and integrative transformations of the image of the goddess Ishtar in ancient Iraqi cylinder seals) dealt with the transformations of form and content of the image of the goddess Ishtar in cylindrical seals and epochs (historical, Sumerian and Akkadian). Therefore, the researcher sought in the first chapter to clarify the problem of research and its importance and need, as well as the goal of research, which represents the following:</p> <p>"I know the transformations formal and integrative image of the gods Ishtar in the editions of the cylinder seals of ancient Iraq" and then concluded the researcher chapter by identifying the terms that have a direct relationship to the title of research and its objectives. The second chapter included a presentation of the theoretical framework and previous studies. It consisted of two sections. The first was the intellectual and religious structure of the ancient civilization of Iraq. The second chapter dealt with the structure of the technical technique of cylindrical seals in the ancient civilization of Iraq. The third chapter was devoted to monitoring the research society and the tool that included the collection of information. The samples were adopted deliberately. Analyze them according to the axes of the analysis tool adopted by the researcher. The fourth chapter included the results of the research, which included:-&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>1 - the type of sculptor of ancient Iraq throughout the ages (similar to the historical and Sumerian and Akkadian), in the form of the gods (Ishtar) borrowed symbols from the environment (Kasbah) six rings, and (Kasbah) and square octagonal leaves, while the gods appeared (Ishtar) Humanity (woman). This in itself is a major shift in the character of the form inspired by reality through the ages of civilization.</p> <p>2 - Reflected the symbols of the image of the gods (Ishtar) reflective power of the old Iraqi, came to express the forces of fertility and reproduction and development in the era similar to the historical, as well as in the Sumerian era and this is due to the fact that the old Iraqi at that stage was interested in the forces of fertility and agriculture and harvesting and breeding, The goddess (Ishtar) is about war and strength, and this is due to the Akkadian interest in the authoritarian and military side and the expansion of the Akkadian state more than their interest in fertility and reproduction. This is a transformation in the content of the gods Ishtar through the ages of civilization.</p> <p>And then the conclusions that emerged through the possibility of achieving the objectives of research through the tool designed by the researcher, including: -1 - The images of cylindrical cylinder prints reflected the problems of religious thought, by referring them to imagined visual systems full of coding directed towards the absolute and the invisible powers. 2 - The ancient Iraqi sculptor showed the image of his deity imagined by multiple bodies and that is why these gods formed a great importance and influential in the structure of the old Iraqi society and emerged with human dignity because it gave them the qualities of human beings, but distinguished it from the form of immortality and although this attribute also met with contradictions in ancient Iraqi myths The death of Enkidu, the friend of Kilgames, and the death of God Demozi, the husband of the gods of Ishtar, and his resurrection came as a reflection of this contradiction. And emerged with the creation of symbols of the cosmic universe to add the characteristics and potentialities of those elements, and emerged with the creation of environmental elements to give them qualities related to the environment, agriculture, fertility and reproduction.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2674 Image Iconology in Ancient Greek Pottery ايقونولوجيا الصورة في الفخار الاغريقي القديم 2019-12-14T16:47:59+00:00 Safa Lotfi Abdul-Amir A07809329293@gmail.com Hussein Hashem Abdul-Wahid Al-Yasiri A07809329293@gmail.com <p>The art of any nation and its cultural manifestations reflect the nature of the ideas of this nation and its vision of the world around it. The greatness of its cultures is directly reflected in its art and the image of the Greek pottery is a testament to the aesthetic sense of the effectiveness of the ideology of ideas associated with the forms of trading in that historical era. Art, which led to the transfer of visual tasks on the level of achievement and technical display of the forms and images executed on the surfaces of pottery, so the current research included four chapters:</p> <p>&nbsp;The first chapter deals with the problem of research, which arose by answering the following question: What does the iconological image mean in the ancient Greek pottery? It also included its importance and the need for it and the objective which means the definition of the archeology of the Greek civilization.</p> <p>The second chapter included two topics: the first (the mechanism of the iconological work in the technical picture) and the second (the iconological thought of the ancient Greek pottery), and the indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework. The second chapter ended with the previous studies.</p> <p>The third chapter, which included the research community and the method of research (the method of iconography), and the research tool, the indicators used by the researcher to analyze the sample of the research consists of (4) model of civilization.</p> <p>The fourth chapter included the following conclusions:</p> <p>1- The iconological picture varied with the variety of sensory and fictional perceptions of artists and from time to time in the method of implementation (realistic, expressive, fictional, scientific) in all the research sample.</p> <p>2 - the signs of movement in all models, achieving visual attractions symbolic symbols of Goddess and heroes and most animals associated with the idea of ​​power, as technical treatments emerged from the vision of the interpretation of its association with the formulation of iconography known to the Greek community to be consistent with the content of what appeared in the position of sitting or standing or facial features and hand gestures in addition to To the movement of progress forward and backward helped to investigate the event and the iconic gestures required by the community to hold a magical ritual or utopian.</p> <p>3 - The Greek artist borrowed the idea through the means of metaphysical expression for the formation of conceptual and intellectual complexes represented in the head of the bull (symbolic icon) and ax (sensory icon) and wheat germs, which came a sign of the effective sense of fertility and development and this is illustrated in the model (1(</p> <p>As it contains the following conclusions:</p> <p>1 - took the approach of the iconography of the ideas prevailing in ancient societies and the investigation and the appearance of the analysis of the sample, it is the act of dialectical relationship between the text and the recipient through the tools of analysis and dependency that the critic to the process of linking between the signs in the text of (reference, icon, icon) The time of its production, the reading of the signs and its impossibility and then its interpretation to the recipient through the iconic figure of that text, and the intellectual dominant that presses on the speech of the declared image.</p> <p>&nbsp;And also included recommendations and proposals. The research ended with Arab and foreign sources, supplements, title and summary in English.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2675 The Role of Mosilli Political and Military Dignitavies in the Internal Political Developments in Iraq (1958-1963) دور الشخصيات السياسية والعسكرية الموصلية في التطورات السياسية الداخلية في العراق (1958-1963) 2019-12-14T16:58:05+00:00 Naeem Jasim Mohammed Drnaeem271@gmail.com Doaa Abd Al Hadi Mohammed dddoaa107@gmail.com <p>The research deals with the most important political and military figures and their role in the internal developments in Iraq during the reign of Abdul Karim Qasim 1958-1963, and was referred to those figures who played an active role in the coup d'état of July 14, 1958 against the monarchy in Iraq and occupied important positions in the new government, Even after the fall of the rule of Abdul Karim Qasim, these figures played an important role and held important positions during the reign of Abdul Salam Aref after the coup of February 8 and November 18, 1963.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2676 Reference of the Holy Quran in the Thought of Sheikh Muhammad Mahdi Al-Asfi (Wilayat al-Faqih Dimensions and Limits) مرجعية القرآن الكريم في فكر الشيخ محمد مهدي الآصفيّ (ولاية الفقيه أبعادها وحدودها) إنموذجاً 2019-12-14T17:03:43+00:00 Mohammed Abbas Noman Jubouri Mohammed1953@yahoo.com Nour Hassan Jabbar Noor.Hassan@gmail.com <p>In order to memorize the paradox - Nakhal it is the subject of discussion and repetition in the Islamic center - the issue of the mandate of the jurist, and it seems that the lack of understanding of the reality of the subject, which is that some scholars say the front of the jurisprudence, and some do not say the mandate of the jurist, and this is not true, that all the jurists of the Imamate without exception They say the mandate of the jurist but differ in the question of the mandate of the jurist in general and non-public This is due to the evidence contained in the mandate of the jurist, some may go to the meaning of his understanding of the texts or understanding of other evidence, while the other does not go to this meaning, and discuss the evidence needs to He has a scientific background in the jurisprudential rules and assets In order to know the evidence.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2677 The Dialectical Sensual & Visual of the on Temporary Iraqi Painting جدلية الحسي والمتخيل في الرسم العراقي المعاصر 2019-12-14T17:10:17+00:00 Inas Mahdi Al-Saffar dr.enas.mahdy@gmail.com Suhad Obaid Al-Khafaji dr.enas.mahdy@gmail.com <p>This research is concerned with the study of (The Dialectical Sensual &amp; Visual of the Contemporary Iraqi Painting). It comes in four chapters. The first chapter tackled the problem of research, which is clear through the following question, which is a real problem that requires study and research.</p> <p>Is there a dialectic between sensual &amp; visual in the contemporary Iraqi painting?</p> <p>The importance of the current research as an attempt to highlight the experience of the contemporary Iraqi artist from the perspective of scientific research and academic study, and the importance of knowledge through the crystallization of an analytical horizon of the works of art within the temporal boundaries of research, and a modest addition to what he wrote about the experiences of contemporary Iraqi artists, through documenting the artistic achievement of the contemporary Iraqi painting.</p> <p>The researcher found that there is a necessary need for this study is that the experience of contemporary Iraqi painting is an important experiment that deserves to be expanded in the field of graduate studies in particular. This study is used by specialists of art students, critics, artists and interested people, through the experience of Iraqi artists and the results that ended this study dedicated to public libraries and specialized in a modest scientific effort, which may represent a modest addition to the benefit of those acquainted with and researchers.</p> <p>The research aims at studying the results of (The Dialectical Sensual &amp; Visual of the Contemporary Iraqi Painting) the applied painting with various oily and acrylic materials on different materials (wood, Canvas) for the period (1965 - 2018) in Iraq. The terms of (dialectic, sensual and visual) also reviewed within this chapter, and the second chapter (Theoretical Framework) included three topics:</p> <p>The first topic: The Dialectical of Sensual &amp; Visual in Philosophical Thought. The second topic: The Dialectical of Sensual &amp; Visual in Contemporary Philosophy, the third topic: The Dialectical of Sensual &amp; Visual in the Iraqi Plastic Art.</p> <p>The third chapter devoted to the research procedures that included the identification of the research community and the selection of the research sample of (3) as a model, then the research methodology and sample analysis.</p> <p>The fourth chapter included the results, conclusions, recommendations and proposals, and the results of the researcher:</p> <p>There are unconscious motives for the artist prompt him to find a way to express what is going on in his mind.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2678 A Psychoanalysis of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman in Terms of Cathy Caruth's Theory PTSD 2019-12-14T17:15:28+00:00 Ansam Ali Flefil Al-Hussainawy ansamfelfil@gmail.com <p>The field of psychoanalysis is an enormous domain to study and analyze related literary works especially in the genre of psychic trauma as this of close connection with the nature of human beings. Accordingly, the modern American theorist Cathy Caruth (b.1955) endows the psychoanalytic theories with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder theory (PTSD) in which the&nbsp; focus is on the revelation of trauma after passing with a period of experience in which there are editing, filtering, inserting imagination, metaphorical expressions, using defensive mechanism, and alike.</p> <p>The American dramatist Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman (1949) is the sample of this study in which the character of Willy Loman, a salesman, is the case on which Caruth's PTSD is studied. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the character of the protagonist psychologically in terms of the main symptoms or principles of the selected theory. The major line of the study is based on several questions including: (1)What are the main principles of Caruth's theory found in the selected play? (2) How far is the protagonist depicted with the sample theory? (3) Is there a connection between the chosen play and the depended theory? In significance, this paper is expected to serve the field of literature by dealing with the art of drama and the field of psychology by focusing on the mentioned theorist and her theory, as well as it shows the connection between those two fields. Structurally, the study begins with an introduction illustrating the theorist and her theory on the one hand and the playwright and his play, on the other hand. Then it analyses the play according to the chosen theory. The conclusion sums up the main findings</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2679 Economic Life in Yemen Through Geographical Works During the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, Hijri, Tenth, Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries (Agriculture is a Model) الحياة الاقتصادية في اليمن من خلال المصنفات الجغرافية خلال القرون الرابع والخامس والسادس الهجري/ ا 2019-12-14T17:21:05+00:00 Mustafa Shakir Hameed AL-Khaqani mustafa.alkhaqani2@gmail.com Atta Salman Jassim mustafa.alkhaqani2@gmail.com <p>This study is an important attempt to understand the economic life in Yemen through the geographical works during the fourth, fifth and sixth centuries AH, may explain during this period the task of methods to improve agricultural production and benefit from it, and the importance of the subject to shed light on agriculture in Yemen Through geographical works in particular on the grounds that agriculture is the source of wealth in some peoples.</p> <p>In this study, we have considered a series of questions that will be a major basis for explaining the problem of research and the mechanism of solving it., If he has taken up agriculture, what is the size of that in their works? And what is the nature of that?, and are some of them in detail more and more accurate than others, or transfer some of each other? These questions are raised in order to obtain answers that satisfy the reader and serve as a starting point for solving the problem of research. Efforts were made to find acceptable answers.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2680 Employing The Techniques of Graphic in Contemporary Ceramics توظيف تقنيات الكرافيك في الخزف المعاصر 2019-12-14T17:28:07+00:00 Rabab Salman Kadhim Rataj@yohoo.com Enas Malik Abdullah Enas_Albshara@yahoo.com <p>The current research (employing the techniques of Graphic in contemporary ceramics), as the aesthetic composition of the art of karafic remains the prominent influence in human creative life, which in turn took on new dimensions and spaces related to popular culture and the means of communication and informatics in postmodern society, Intellectual and aesthetic and technical, as well as the growing sense of the role of artist / potter in the creation of a ceramic artistic aesthetic contributed to the development of the artistic and aesthetic vision of the art of ceramics, especially American ceramics in particular.</p> <p>The study was summarized in four chapters:</p> <p>Chapter One: The general framework includes the problem of research and its importance and the purpose of the research, which summarizes:</p> <ul> <li>Knowledge of the ceramic techniques used in contemporary ceramics.</li> </ul> <p>The limits of research were limited to the study of ceramic works completed in America for the period (2000-2010).</p> <p>The second chapter dealt with the first topic (technical diversity in the art of cartographic printing), the second topic dealt with (contemporary ceramics).</p> <p>The third chapter consisted of research procedures including the research community and its sample, the research methodology, the research tool, and the analysis of the samples of (5) works by a contemporary American eccentric from a community of (50) ceramic works.</p> <p>The researcher adopted descriptive method - the method of analysis based on the indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework as a tool for analyzing the sample of the research.</p> <p>The fourth chapter contains the results of the research. Among the findings of the research are the following:</p> <ol> <li>The contemporary American potter was able to acquire the physical world (sensory), creating a combination of mental vision and graphic display through silk screen technology.</li> <li>The awareness of the ceramic techniques of the modern American pottery, creating a diversity of texture due to the effect of ink and thermal wax.</li> </ol> <p>The conclusions:</p> <ol> <li>The contemporary American potter used the ceramic ceramics in the forms of circulation in his living environment and presented them in an exciting manner.</li> <li>Postmodern art has led to changes in the nature of vision in general and of art in particular.</li> </ol> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2681 Invitation and Intimidation in Persian Painting The Transfigurations of الترغيب والترهيب وتجلياتهما في التصوير الفارسي 2019-12-14T17:39:14+00:00 HaiderAbd Al- Ameer AnwarAli1983x@Gmail.com Rashid Anwar Ali Alwan AnwarAli1983x@Gmail.com <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This study is concerned with the study of " Invitation and Intimidation in Persian Painting ". It includes four chapters. The first chapter deals with the problem of the research, its importance, the need for it, its purpose, and its limits</p> <p>The problem of the research dealt with the subject of irritation and intimidation in Persian photography, which was determined by answering the following question: What is the Invitation and intimidation in Persian Painting?</p> <p>The importance of the current research is that it represents an attempt to investigate the concepts of induction and intimidation from the perspective of the expression of these two concepts in the products of Persian photography, and to highlight the impact of Quranic texts on the implications of the metaphors and intimidation on the products of Persian photography, through the transfer of these concepts to visual art applications.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The need for the current research in the fact that the subject has not been studied in the area of ​​plastic art, which is justified to address and disclose the analytical data, to achieve the desired benefit, and it benefits researchers and art connoisseurs and those interested in the aesthetic and technical studies and cash for Islamic photography, And research proposals.</p> <p>The objective of the research is to identify the Invitation and intimidation in Persian photography. The limits of the research include three aspects: (a) Objectivity: which was the study of encouragement and intimidation in the productions of Persian photography, which was limited to the miniatures that dealt with the topics (Quranic stories only) (1294-1555m), c-spatial: Iran .&nbsp;</p> <p>The second section, which consists of the theoretical framework, contains two topics. The first topic is: "The Propagation and Intimidation in the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah". The second topic includes two axes: The theoretical framework ended with a series of indicators.</p> <p>The third chapter deals with the research procedures that included the research society of (20) miniatures, the research sample of (5) models, the research tool, its validity and stability, research methodology, mathematical and statistical methods.</p> <p>The fourth chapter included the results of the research, conclusions, recommendations and proposals, and finally a list of sources, supplements and forms.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2682 The Spatial Variation of the Pollution of the Steel Pipes in Qasim City and its Environmental Effects التباين المكاني للتلوث بالنفايات الصلبة في مدينة القاسم واثارها البيئية 2019-12-14T17:50:01+00:00 Mohammed Kadhim Abttan Al-Jeboury dandansh814@gmail.com Rusul Mohammed Kadhim Al-Jeboury rsrs92663@gmail.com Dunya Shukur Abbas Al-Najjar mkaljeboury@gmail.com <p>Most cities, especially in developing countries, are witnessing an increase in the quantity of solid waste to be treated and disposed of in safe, healthy and affordable ways. The continuous accumulation of solid waste (household, industrial, agricultural, Construction, construction, streets, hospitals, etc.) are chaotic and have many harmful and dangerous effects. They may also become an economic resource if they are recycled and reused to benefit from materials (plastic, paper, glass) For recycling and use.</p> <p>The city of Qassim is among the most prominent Iraqi cities that have suffered from the accumulation of solid waste, and emerged more effectively as a result of the financial crisis experienced by Iraq, which prevented the existence of financial allocations, resulting in a clear failure of the work of the city of Qassim in the management of solid waste and final disposal in the sites Landfill. In this context, the study</p> <p>environmental effects. The study supported descriptive descriptive analysis based on data analysis and how to deal with it using the questionnaire to study the variables that affect the research problem and evaluate the efficiency of the environmental service. The study concluded with a set of conclusions and recommendations regarding finding the facts and finding appropriate solutions.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>came to address the solid waste in the city of Qassim and its</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2683 Hohenzollern Family in Prussia (1861-1701) The (Historical study) أسرة الهوهنزلرن في بروسيا (1701-1861) ( دراسة تاريخية) 2019-12-14T17:55:56+00:00 Nadia Jasem Kadhim Al-Shammari Dr.nadia@uobabylon.edu.iq <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Study explained the German royal family, Hohenzlern, ruled Brandenburg, Prussia, and the German Empire until the end of the First World War. The head of the family was known as the Prince or the elect in the 13th century. He was known as the King of Prussia at the beginning of the 18th century and the Emperor of Germany in the second half of the 19th century When the empire was declared and German unity was achieved, its property was not a single state, but a group of countries. While Brandenburg and Cliff were within the German state, Prussia was subject to the Kingdom of Poland, Russia was the province of Brandenburg in the thirteenth century. Eastern Prussia was bordering Poland. It turned out that the problem faced by the Prussian officials in defending Prussia was just an extension of Polish ease. Prussia had no geographical borders on which to base geographically, militarily and politically. In particular, the inheritance of the Hohenzlern of</p> <p>Prussia did not lead to a final cut of the feudal relations between Poland and Prussia, so the rulers of this family devoted their efforts to the total elimination of these feudal restrictions by entering into continuous wars . In the east, the Hohenzlern family included the Duchy of Cliff on the Rhine through the heirs, Counts of Marks and Ravensberg, and small provinces in western Germany. They moved to expand Brandenburg to the north of the German states. Thus the Hohenzlern was united in one branch of the family, Brandenburg-Prussia, Duchy of East Prussia.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study revealed that the rulers of Prussia played an active role in the unification of the property of the Hohenzlern and the organization of the German states and coordination with the policies of the European countries allied by taking their rulers plans organized and efficient in order to make their way to the establishment of the modern Kingdom through military alliances, The Holy Roman Empire of the Kingdom of Prussia after it was a Duchy, and the property of the Hohenzlern in the German states was called the Prussian Kingdom, and the rulers of this family continued their wars against the European countries to expand their lands and achieve political unity between the states of Alma Under the leadership of the Hohenzlern family.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2684 Photos of Exaggeration in Altahrir Waltanwer- Study in Grammatical Surat Al Bagarh is Model)) مظاهرُ المبالَغةِ في التَّحريرِ والتَّنويرِــ دِراسةٌ في ضوءِ الوظائفِ النحويّةِ (سورةُ البقرةِ أنموذجًا) 2019-12-14T18:00:05+00:00 Imad Fadhil Abed imadfadhil@gmail.com <p>The exaggeration of the Arabic methods, which is intended to amplify the meaning and the guidance and emphasis in the same recipient, and the Holy Quran includes this method, taken as a means to bring about change in the same recipient, has been interested in a number of commentators to study exaggeration in the Koran, and to explain their methods, most notably TahirIbnAshour. His interpretation of liberation and enlightenment, as he took great interest in this phenomenon in light of his interest in the miracle of the Koran, especially the miracles Balaghi.</p> <p>This research is based on trying to follow the images of exaggeration when Ibn Ashour in his interpretation al Tahrir waltanwer and know their levels. Taking the Surah Al-Baqarah as a practical model for that.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2685 The Aesthetics of the Performance Narration of the Actor in the Iraqi Play جماليات السرد الادائي للممثل في العرض المسرحي العراقي 2019-12-14T18:06:17+00:00 Abbas Mohammed Ibraheem B.m_73@yahoo.com Waleed Mana'a Dagher B.m_73@yahoo.com <p>The subject of the narratives was opened in various fields, and after taking a wide and varied work in all literary genres. Studies and research were studied in other fields that might appear to be adjacent or Mahaiser. The performance of the representative in the Iraqi play] includes four chapters, as the first chapter came in the methodological framework, including the problem of research focused on the question [what is the narrative and how is the narrative performance of the representative? The research also included the importance of the research and its need as the narrative overlap and alliance with the performing arts, Combine the chapter of the research objective into a definition P aesthetics performative narrative of a representative in the Iraqi theater, has been in research alone determines the spatial Babylon, and the time limit [2019] study the aesthetics of united subject performative narrative of a representative in the Iraqi theater, and concluded chapter identifying procedural terms and definitions.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The second chapter, the theoretical framework, included one subject [aesthetics of the performance narrative of the representative] and concluded the chapter of previous studies and indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework, and the most important:</p> <ul> <li>Physical narration refers to the physical senses of the individual and then goes to the spaces of the soul.</li> <li>for the narrative aesthetics provided by the physical performance of the representative or verbal references social psychological.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The third chapter deals with the research procedures, including the research society which includes [10] Iraqi theater performances, according to the temporal limit, and the same research included the same one, the play "Imagine the Lost Word" by Alireza.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;It also included the research methodology and its content and then the sample analysis.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The fourth and final chapter contains the results, including:</p> <ul> <li>approaching the narrative of the performance of reality indicates that the aesthetics of the recipient and distinctive to communicate.</li> <li>The body stops narration because of external pressures prevent him and restrict his movement.</li> <li>The more the narrative performance of the representative closer to the reality whenever he has a very distinctive aesthetics.</li> </ul> <p>Then came the conclusions and the most important:</p> <ul> <li>the existence of narrative and aesthetic performances in all arts and literature without exception.</li> <li>narration is determined by the existence of the narrator and what can result from the performance of aesthetics of the highest reality.</li> </ul> <p>&nbsp;Recommendations and proposals The research concludes with my list of sources and a summary of the research in English.</p> 2019-12-14T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2686 Hohenzollern Family in Prussia (1861-1701) The (Historical study) أسرة الهوهنزلرن في بروسيا (1701-1861) ( دراسة تاريخية) 2019-12-15T06:06:51+00:00 Nadia Jasem Kadhim Al-Shammari Dr.nadia@uobabylon.edu.iq <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The Study explained the German royal family, Hohenzlern, ruled Brandenburg, Prussia, and the German Empire until the end of the First World War. The head of the family was known as the Prince or the elect in the 13th century. He was known as the King of Prussia at the beginning of the 18th century and the Emperor of Germany in the second half of the 19th century When the empire was declared and German unity was achieved, its property was not a single state, but a group of countries. While Brandenburg and Cliff were within the German state, Prussia was subject to the Kingdom of Poland, Russia was the province of Brandenburg in the thirteenth century. Eastern Prussia was bordering Poland. It turned out that the problem faced by the Prussian officials in defending Prussia was just an extension of Polish ease. Prussia had no geographical borders on which to base geographically, militarily and politically. In particular, the inheritance of the Hohenzlern of Prussia did not lead to a final cut of the feudal relations between Poland and Prussia, so the rulers of this family</p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2687 Glass Techniques and Their Aesthetic Effects on Contemporary Ceramics تقنيات الزجاج وتأثيراتها الجمالية على المنجز الخزفي المعاصر 2019-12-15T06:12:55+00:00 Ababeel Mohammed Obayes Ababeelmohammed@gmal.com Hassanein AbdAlameer Fine.hassanein.abd@uobabylon.edu.iq <p>The current research dealt with glass techniques and their aesthetic effects on contemporary ceramics and the aesthetic features of special effects ceramics and the aesthetics of new techniques developed in ceramic art.</p> <p>As the research contained four chapters, the first chapter dealt with the methodological framework that presents the problem of research and is determined by the following question: What does science do in glass techniques and its aesthetic appearance on ceramics?</p> <p>The first chapter dealt with the importance of research and the need for it. The study aimed at identifying the techniques of glass and their aesthetic effects on contemporary ceramic works. The limits of research were confined to the study of contemporary European and American works between 2000 and 2018.</p> <p>The second chapter consisted of two subjects. The first topic dealt with the relationship between technology and the concept of beauty in art. The second topic dealt with the art of contemporary ceramics up to the previous studies. The theoretical framework resulted in a set of indicators adopted by the researcher as a criterion in the description process, .</p> <p>The third chapter was devoted to the research procedures, including the research community which included 30 ceramic works for European and American cachots. The research sample consisted of (5) ceramic works. These models were selected in an intentional manner and the researcher adopted the descriptive approach in analyzing the sample models.</p> <p>The fourth chapter included the results and the most important:</p> <p>1 - Contemporary ceramic works achieved creative sufficiency by relying on technology away from complexity in the form system and this is evident in all sample models.</p> <p>In light of the results and their discussion, the conclusions were reached, the most important of which are:</p> <p>1 - show the aesthetic of ceramic works by linking old technologies with new technologies</p> <p>`The research ends with the presentation of the recommendations and proposals related to the subject of the study, and finally concluded the current study with sources and supplements and the summary of the research in English.</p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2689 Psychological Stress and their Representations in the Characteristics of Teenage Girl's Drawings الضغوط النفسية وتمثلاتها في خصائص رسوم المراهقات 2019-12-15T06:23:37+00:00 Suhad Abdel Moneim Shaabith Jaafer.sade900@gmail.com Sadiq Amran Mousa Al Joki Jaafer.sade900@gmail.com <p>The current study examined theirrepresentations of psychological stress on the characteristics of adolescent drawings, an attempt to uncover their representations of psychological stress on the characteristics of teen's drawings.</p> <table> <tbody> <tr> <td width="520"> <table width="100%"> <tbody> <tr> <td> <p>Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities (JUBH)<strong>&nbsp;</strong>by University of Babylon is licensed under a</p> <p><a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> &nbsp;</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>In order to achieve the objective of the research, the study dealt with the representations of psychological stress on the characteristics of adolescent drawings. The study included four chapters. The first chapter deals with the methodological framework that began with the problem of research and through the research objective. The second chapter consists of theoretical framework of research; the third topic included the artistic expression of adolescents and a summary of the psychological indications of lines and colors. The third chapter included the research procedures in terms of limiting the society of the children, Urged the tool that included the collection of information, the sample was randomly adoption amounted to (25) a sample of teenage girls drawings models at the age of (16)years, and the sample covered the limits of research the adoption of the descriptive manner causal comparative studies for the purpose of analysis. Finally, the fourth chapter included the results and</p> <p>conclusions that emerged from the research in the light of its objective, and its relation to the theoretical framework data. The most important results of these results are:</p> <p>-that psychological stress has a bearing on the characteristics of teen's drawings.</p> <p>- the emergence of psychological pressure in (12) characteristic of adolescent charges are as follows:</p> <p>The lines are curved and soft, the colors are light-cold, the shapes are distorted and fill most aspects of painting, drawing the opposite sex, sad and static faces, closed space, monotonous repetition</p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2690 American - Ethiopian Cultural Relations 1941-1974 " Education as a Model" العلاقات الثقافية الامريكية – الاثيوبية 1941- 1974 " التعليم انموذجاً" 2019-12-15T08:04:59+00:00 Haytham Muhi Talip Malih AL-Jubouri ss.maytham@yahoo.com <p>The research deals with a picture of the American - Ethiopian cultural relations during the period (1941-1974), in the education sector which is the basis for development in any country of the World, the Soviet Union during the Cold War , after the two sides tried to search for spheres of influence around the world, using cultural, economic and political assistance to developing countries to increase the political influence on those recipient D benefit the Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie of the Government of that War, The Emperor has sought to strengthen bridges of relation with the United States of America , in the hope to attract support him all fields, including the education sector, especially since the emperor was strongly believed in the centrality of education in the country's progress.</p> <p>The United States has worked on several projects in the field of education in Ethiopia, including the construction of new school and provide them with all school supplies, and the establishment of an educational system in Ethiopia similar to the American educational system, American experts have prepared comprehensive educational development plans to develop the educational reality of Ethiopia, as well as the foundation for vocational education is through the opening of agricultural and commercial school , to train students in certain professions and to guide Ethiopian youth into an industrial society that the country was most in need of.</p> <p>The United States also contributed to laying the foundation stone for higher education in Ethiopia though the establishment of the University of Haile Selassie, it&nbsp; has a vital role to play in promoting social and economic development in Ethiopia by providing it with a scientifically trained and practical national workforce.</p> <p>However , the&nbsp; disadvantage of the education system applied by the United States of American in Ethiopia is that it relies on English as a language of instruction&nbsp; rather than the local language , whatever the case , regardless of the Us intention of educational reforms, it has contributed in one way or another to the improving the educational level the Ethiopian people.</p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon https://www.journalofbabylon.com/index.php/JUBH/article/view/2692 Fundamental Rules and Procedures of a Lawsuit in the Islamic Judiciary System القواعد والإجراءات الأصولية للدعوى القضائية في نظام القضاء الإسلامي 2019-12-15T08:38:21+00:00 Abdulrahman Abbas Adain Drubdulrahman57@gmail.com <p>In this research, we discussed the definition of the lawsuit and its role in the Islamic judiciary, and to highlight the procedural aspects developed by Muslim jurists and judges throughout the ages and on their heads The Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and&nbsp; Imam Ali Ibn Abi Talib and they were adopted as legal rules currently approved in the laws of the various Islamic countries, and then we discussed the definition of the lawsuit as a language and a term, although the origin of the lawsuit as a separated right is separate from the substantive right to be attached to the procedural law, the types of the lawsuit, and the definition of the promotion , and the role of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) in the education of the owners of the origins of the lawsuit and methods of grievance and complaint and the establishment of a great principle in the proof is (evidence on who claimed and right on who denied), then explain the judges sitting in the Judicial Council, as it represents the act of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) in his sitting with his</p> <p>companions (may Allah be pleased with them) and considered&nbsp; that the legal and political literature adopted in the State Arab Islamic over time, and then explained the nature of seating opponents and settle them in the Judicial Council is considered one of the most important rules of the fundamental decisions of the Islamic judiciary, And then explained the writer of the judge and the specifications that characterize the judicial process the origin of the legitimacy of that is the work of the Prophet (peace be upon him), where he took a writer as well as Imam Ali ,then we explained the prestige of the judge and the Judicial Council, where he enjoyed prestige and dignity, the Islamic judiciary was a great status when the ruler and ruled and had a prestige and enjoyed what it enjoyed by impartiality, independence and professionalism in order to achieve justice and equality among people, by that the righteous advances had established rules and principles for the Judiciary Council, guaranteeing the prestige and integrity of the judiciary, apply the principles of Islamic law and this is what it should be.</p> 2019-12-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon