Journal of University of Babylon for Humanities <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>ournal of <strong>U</strong>niversity of <strong>B</strong>abylon for Humanities, (<span style="color: rgb(255, 102, 0);"><strong>JUBH</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p align="justify" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBH</strong> is a Humanities peer-reviewed open access journal monthly publishing high-quality research and review papers at the lead of recent research describing significant developments in Human Sciences.</span></p> <p align="justify" style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>ISSN:&nbsp;<a title="ISSN:&nbsp;2617-0906" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2617-0906</a></strong></span></p> en-US (Info.) (Ahmed Rawdhan Salman) Mon, 13 May 2019 21:29:01 +0000 OJS 60 The Characteristics of Magical Realism in the Work of the Iraq Artst Suad Alttar and the Egyp Tian Artist Zainab AL-Sijini <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research consists of four chapters. The first chapter includes the research problem, which is summarized by the following question: What are the characteristics of magical realism in the works of the Iraqi artist Suad Al Attar and the Egyptian artist Zainab Al-Sejini, as well as the importance of research and its need? The drawings of the artist Suad Al Attar and the artist Zeinab Al-Sajini, and the definition of terminology.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The second chapter included two topics: First: the concept of magical realism in plastic art. The second topic: the characteristics of privacy in the experience of artist Suad Al Attar and artist Zeinab Al-Sajini, as well as the indicators that ended the theoretical framework. The third chapter deals with the research procedures represented by the research, the research sample, the research methodology, and the analysis of six samples of the works of the artists Suad Al-Attar and Zainab Al-Sejini. The fourth chapter included the results of the research, the most important of which:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">- Women live in the works of Suad al-Attar in remote forests uninhabited by people and dark spaces and perform strange acts of puzzling while Zeinab women sit in open places and bright spaces and perform acts approaching the fun and play and fun childish</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The conclusions are:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">- The image of women in the work of Suad Al-Attar on the concerns of uncertainty and fear of the unknown in the Iraqi self due to factors of the environment and life and constant anxiety, while the image of women at Zeinab al-Sajini stability and childish fun and reassurance due to the factors of the natural environment and social stability in Egypt.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As well as recommendations, proposals, form appendix, research summary in English and research sources.</p> Maha Saleem Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Sun, 21 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Tribal Visual During Islamic Times <p style="text-align: justify;">The research deals with Al-Basra tribes during the Islamic period, some of them of origin, some of them migrated to Basra. Most of these tribes migrated to it because of Basra's physical and scientific temptations for its inhabitants for successive periods until it was settled. The neighborhoods, cities, roads and rivers became the names of those tribes, some of which played a political and military role and changed the course of history. In opposition movements to the state or loyal to them until they were exhausted by wars and tribal conflicts and ended their political role.</p> Banan Fakhir Yusuf Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Study The Causes of Children Begging Phenomenon in The Center of Babil Province and its Treatment <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research aims to identifying the causes of the phenomenon of child begging in the center of Babil province from the educational, psychological and social point of view and understanding the causes from the point of view of the working children themselves, and then the proposed solutions to eliminate this phenomenon from the point of view of the public at different levels and specialists in the field of sociology.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">In the current research, the questionnaire was adopted as a means of collecting the required data to analyze the causes of the phenomenon and to obtain the necessary proposals for treatment that were prepared by the researchers in addition to individual interviews with the begging children in the study places.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The research samples reached 53 children in the study places in the center of Babel governorate, in (the intersection of the revolution, the intersection of the mother, the intersections of Bab al-Hussein, Karama Street, the bridge of the Indians, the iron bridge, the doctors street, the market of Hilla, the control of Abi Gharq). In addition, 50 questionnaires were adopted for each social stratum in which important information and data were collected (doctors in the field of psychiatry, family medicine, pediatrics, university professors and postgraduate students in the field of psychological and educational sciences), workers in the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, or teachers with general competencies - the category of young graduates and university students, including activists in civil society organizations - parents (parents and parents) who are over the age of 50 years of the general population).</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The results showed that the weakness of the supervisory role of social welfare institutions received the highest percentage among the main reasons for the spread of child begging phenomenon, while the child's desire to work and migration from rural to city did not constitute any cause for this phenomenon. It was found that child labor is more prevalent among males than among females, and that the highest rate is between 8-12 years. The highest dropout rate is found in the third grade of boys only.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Through this study, a number of important recommendations and practical measures have been proposed that could be adopted to prevent or reduce the phenomenon of begging in the province of Babylon.</p> Fatimah Hameed Naser Al Mamoori, Ahlam Hamid Jasim Al Hassan Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Tue, 23 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of the Swom Strategy on the Achievement of First Grade Students in Arabic Grammar The impact of the Swom strategy on the Achievement of First Grade Students in the Arabic Grammar <p style="text-align: justify;">The current research aims to identify the impact of the SWOM strategy in teaching the grammar of the Arabic language in the first intermediate students.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The limits of the research were:</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">- A sample of the first- grade students in the average Ahl al-Bayt for the academic year 2016 - 2017.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">And a number of subjects to be taught in the grammar of the Arabic language for the first grade is the average: [science, pronouns, names of the sign, and names linked, and familiar Bal, and knowledge in addition, and beginner and news, and her sisters, and that sisters].</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;As for the research community, the current research community is the middle school day schools only in Hilla city center for the academic year [2016 -2017], if the sample of 72 female students is average and randomly selected.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The researchers used the appropriate means to process the data [the T-test of two independent samples, the Kai square, the Person correlation coefficient] , The equation of the difficulty coefficient, the equation of the paragraph distinction, and the equation of the effectiveness of the wrong alternatives], where the researchers reached the superiority of the experimental group who study according to the strategy [Swom] on the control group who study according to the usual method.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The researchers concluded:</p> <ol style="text-align: justify;"> <li>The need to adopt the teachers of the Arabic language and schools Swom strategy, because of its effectiveness in achievement.</li> <li>Teachers and teachers should be encouraged to use the Swom strategy effectively in the teaching of grammar.</li> <li>The need to use methods and teaching methods in line with modern trends in teaching in order to think to develop students' intellectual abilities to face life in a changing world.</li> </ol> <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The researchers suggested that a similar study should be conducted to determine the effect of using a Swom strategy in the rest of the Arabic language, such as literature, rhetoric, dictation, and reading.</p> Wafea Jabber Mohammed Yasiri, Hussein Faleeh Mahdi, Abes Fahim Saheb Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Influence of Intellectual Transformations in Romantic Art <p style="text-align: justify;">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The present research includes the influence of intellectual transformations in romantic art. The transformation of intellectual into the visual achievement of romantic art and the role of these transformations in directing the mechanisms of work in the drawings and works of romantic art, and this research consists of four chapters, which includes the first chapter identify the problem of research, which is clear through the following questions, which are real problems that require study Is there an impact of intellectual transformations and The romantic artist dealt with the effect of his artistic works. How effective are the transformations, factors and foundations that affect the structure of the romantic painting? The present research aims to identify the effect of intellectual transformations in romantic art. The limits of research included in the first chapter were limited to the study of the drawings of the Romantic artists for works performed in France for the period 1795-1840. The second chapter included the theoretical framework, , Reviewed the first topic: theories, theories and factors that influenced the art and studied the editing of art and artist. Artistic criticism and its effective role in changing the concepts of the Romantic school. The philosophical and literary opinions and their effective role in changing the course of art. The second chapter deals with the factors and foundations that influence the romantic drawing. The theoretical frame was concluded by discussing and extracting the indicators from it to be used in the analysis of the sample. The third chapter included the procedures related to the research society and the sample and methodology of the research. And conclusions as well as recommendations and proposals, and the most prominent results reached by the two researchers: 1 - the destination of the romantic artist with a personal character and special style distinctive 2. - Romance depends on the superiority of the imagination on the reality scenes Fantasia 3. - pain and fear and fatigue in drawing 4. Man impressions indicate the weight of the imaginary speech at the expense of the real, self-packed ideas and impressions in order to remove the visual blockage to reveal the representations of the invisible. 4. Self-impressions are evident as in all models of the sample. The most important conclusions: 1. Romantic art is predominantly spiritual, Revealing the soul in its internal struggles and struggles and pains. And depicts the conflict, pain and torment and reveals to us the horrific aspect of our lives. 2. Romanticism represented feelings, human imagination and self-power. It overcame passion for thought, ambiguity over logic, and passion for reservation and freedom over laws.</p> Eman Khazal Abbas Marouf, Zainab Ragheb Al Obeidi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Effective Reading and Text Production (Arthroscopy Rooting) <p>The research is being undertaken the relationship between effective reading and literary text, as the levels of reading vary according to the reader's goals and methodology. Effective reading is a productive reading that goes beyond the passive recipient, to adopt a special strategy and a specific methodology for co-existence with the text and unlock my stories with the acknowledgment that the evasive meaning does not easily deliver itself to the reader. It is multiple of a readings and approaches plurality, meaning that the bookmark touches other aspects without them.&nbsp; Reading, which means focusing on the dimensions of the text, and listening to the pulse of literary text as an aesthetic way and vision of the imagination and artistic formulation reality.The aim of this research is to acknowledge between the reader and the text to format the new meaning, which means identifying the roll of the recipient in the production of new text according to his reading, each reading varies either by reference, reader, or text. So, is it true that text differs in its acceptant to the never-ending readings? And does references or literacy averages have a role in the differences in reading one text, and does have a role in meaning and reading variation? This is what we well try to uncover in this research. Descriptive analytical has affected us, because we well follow the role of reading and the reader in creating the text, and other theoretical assets of productive reading.</p> Hanan Jaber Al Harthy Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Choice Manifestations in Paintings of Adolescent Girls <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper tackles the topic of "Altruism Manifestations in Paintings of Adolescent Girls". It explores theories that explain altruism manifestation and aspects of altruism in the Holy Quran and Prophet Traditions by reviewing many verses of Quran and prophetic traditions. It also reviews positive moral values, the basis component of the Iraqi family and institutional social existence that reflect society culture and behavior principles.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The paper includes for chapters. The first chapter deals with the framework of research methodology represented by the problem of the research, which is limited with the following questions: "What are altruism manifestations in adolescent girls?"</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The first chapter also includes importance of the research and its aim represented by 'exploring altruism manifestations in adolescent girls'. The research is limited to examining altruism manifestations in fourth class secondary school girls who are 16 years old during the academic year 2017 – 2018 in different secondary and preparatory schools in Hillah, capital of Babil Province.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The second chapter includes three main topics representing the theoretical framework. The first topic deals with the concept of altruism. It reviews altruism in Islam, theories explaining altruism, and social and psychological concepts related to altruism. The second topic tackles the concept of adolescence including and introduction about adolescence and its stages and its features during the middle stages of adolescence. The third topic dealt 'adolescent paintings' as a means for intellectual and psychological expression of adolescent girls.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Chapter three tackles the research procedure including sample and population of the research and research approach. The researcher used two tools in this research: the first tool is the altruism behavior measure (Measure of Kawa Mohammed Ali- after making a survey and applying it on the experiment and control samples); the second tool is an adolescent paintings analysis tool.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Chapter four includes research results and analysis, conclusions, suggestions and suggestions.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">One of the main results of the research is that there are distinguished altruism manifestations in adolescent paintings including type of lines such as straight and curved lines, line boldness, shapes details, saturated colors, accurate shape coloring, and variety of coloring, changing of color- natural and unnatural.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The research ends in recommendations and suggestions.</p> Ghadir Jawad Kadhum, Israa Hamid Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 29 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Terrorism and its Representation in Visual Art Contemporary Iraq <p>this research Concerns with (Terrorism and its representation in visual art contemporary Iraq), which is located in four chapters, the first chapter is devoted to (the statement of the research problem, its importance and the need for it, its goal, its borders، and to determine the terms contained in the title and definition). The third chapter singled out procedures, which included research (research community of 114 works of art is visible، and the research sample the (6) Iraqi contemporary works, then search tool، and statistical methods، and analysis of the sample). And ensure that the fourth quarter results, and conclusions، and recommendations، and proposals, Among the findings of the researcher are:</p> <ol> <li>contribute to Iraqi contemporary artists played a major role in spreading awareness of the risks of terrorist, and the fight against forms lining for international terrorism، the government, and the terror organizations, it was the artists role in creating a mind to build a new society towards independence and freedom from this vicious attack which Ost in the land of corruption, as All models in the sample.</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> Zainab Rihda Hamodylect Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Sun, 23 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Dualism of Extrrovesion and Introversion of Personality in the Iraqi Theater <p>This research is a study of the dualism and introversion of personality in the Iraqi theater text. The research consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the problem of research, which was determined by the following question: How does the dualism and introversion of the personality work in the Iraqi theater text And the importance of research in the detection and access to the results of the dimensions of personal introverted and extraneous in the text of the Iraqi theater, and came the need to be useful to the specialists of the authors and directors and students of personal psychology and postgraduate students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. The objective of the research was to identify the dual concerns of the personality and the introversion of personality in the Iraqi theater text. The second chapter contains the theoretical framework and the previous studies, including two sections. The first section deals with the concept of extinction and convergence according to the concepts of psychologists. The second topic dealt with the study of the simplification and introversion of personality in the world theater text, which included the Western theater, the Arab theater and the Iraqi theater.</p> Jawad Kadhum Abd – Al- Amer Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Sun, 23 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Effectiveness of A Suggested Strategy Based on the Entrance of Language Communication in Developing the Skills of Speaking Among Students in the First Grade Intermediate <p>The aim of the research is to identify the effectiveness of a suggested strategy based on the approach of language communication in developing the speaking skills of the first grade students, by identifying the appropriate speaking skills for the first grade students, determining the basis of the proposed strategy, In the development of speaking skills among students in the first grade. The researcher also used the analytical descriptive method to extrapolate previous research and studies, build research tools, guide the teacher and use the experimental method in teaching. The current research community included the first 50 students in the first grade. The research found that there is a difference between the experimental group and the control group, and proved the effectiveness of the proposed strategy based on the entrance of language communication in the development of speaking skills.</p> Zeena Fadel Mahdi , Murtada jabbr Abd Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Sun, 23 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Collage and its Applications in Scenography the Iraqi Theatrical Display <p>The aim of research to the study of (the collage and its applications in scenography the Iraqi theatrical display). The collage of aesthetic possibilities in the design of the scenography theatrical presentation, in addition to the intellectual transmission in unconventional ways, stimulates the recipient to contribute to the theatrical performance by producing the meaning or participation directly interacting with the collage. Towards his interpretive possibilities and trying to monitor his formative structure in order to reach his concept given through the method of scenography theatrical presentation.</p> <p>The research consists of four chapters. The first chapter deals with the problem and importance of research and its need, in addition to the goal and limits of research and the definition of terminology. The aim of the research was to define the collage and its applications in the scenography play of the Iraqi theater.</p> <p>The second chapter consists of two topics: the first is the concept of collage, in which the concepts of collage were discussed, in addition to some of the experiences of contemporary directors such as Chiena, Chung, and Luccont. The second was titled "Elements of the Synography in the Dramatic Performance" From the knowledge and nature of the employment of theatrical space, and then concluded the second chapter of the previous studies and indicators that resulted from the theoretical framework.</p> <p>While the third chapter was the identification of the research community and the eye and the research tool and then select the research methodology after the analysis of the research samples, which were selected in a way that is tentative, AND&nbsp; The two Samples are a play (reprimand) by Anas Abdul Samad in 2013, and the play "Red Carpet" by director Jabbar Judy in 2015.</p> <p>The fourth chapter has been extracted the results of the research, including:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The two samples (1, 2) combined the very different visual and audible elements by employing overlapping structures of life scenes encoded at the level of different events and actions in the theater areas, with the reinforcement of an interlocking audio producer, which achieved the application of collage in the scenography of the play.</li> <li class="show">Formal complexity achieved a clear application presence in the two samples (1, 2) through the two displays of complex configurations, both visual and acoustic, as well as overlapping clusters of machines, devices, bodies and optical spots, which created complex and mysterious relationships despite their spatial convergence and formality As well as the use of the accumulation of bodies and silence and silence as a means to increase the complexity of the theater performances, which promoted the application of collage in the scenography of the play.</li> </ol> <p>The research concluded with conclusions, recommendations, proposals, sources and annexes.</p> <p><strong><u>&nbsp;</u></strong></p> Mohammed Abbas Hantoosh, Maryam Osamah Abed Mahmoud Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Sun, 23 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Spatial Model of the Emission of Intersections in The City of Diwanyah Using Programs of Aermod View And Sidra Intersection (A Study in the Geography of the Envoronment) <p>The study area is the city of Al-Diwaniyah, the center of the province of Al-Diwaniyah, and this made it an important node of the main transport routes, most of which pass through the city. The city has a total area of ​​4711 hectares and includes five sectors with 61 residential neighborhoods.</p> <p>The study aims to detect the spatial variation of concentrations of air pollutants of carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from burning fossil fuels through the use of dispersion and dispersion models for vehicle emissions at intersections. The Sidra Intersection v5 software is used to calculate the quantities of fuel consumed and the resulting emissions , Aermod View v8 is also is used to model vehicle emissions taking in to consideration the modeling time is the morning rush hour 7.5-8.5 AM, during which the monitoring of the numbers and types of vehicles in 16&nbsp; main intersection of the field study in July of 2017.The methodology of the study is based on the analytical descriptive method. The methods of automated analysis are also used in GIS.</p> <p>The study reveals the difference in the quantities of fuel consumption and the quantities of pollutants emitted at the intersectionswhere the highest amounts of fuel consumption are in some of the intersections surrounding the central area of ​​the city, and the direction of the movement of emissions by the wind in July are two main axes, the first towards the south-east and the second to the north-west. Nitrogen oxides cover more space than compared with other pollutants. The distance from the source of emission, shows that the higher concentration levels are usually closer to the source of emission and close distances.</p> Abdul Reda Matar Abdul Reda , Ibrahim Naji As Shabany Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Unseen Patterns of Kazem Noir's Drawings from the Cultural Criticism Perspective <p>This research is concerned with studying (the unseen patterns in the art work of the artist Kadhem Nwayer from the perspective of cultural criticism) and it lays in four chapters. the first chapter was assigned to show the problems with the research, its importance, the need to it, its goals, limits and highlighting the most important terms that been used in it.</p> <p>The problem of the research included the unseen patterns in the art work of the artist KADHIM NWAYER and that was from the perspective of the cultural criticism as a way to discover these patterns which is hidden behind what is clear for audience , and from here the problem was raised to answer the following :</p> <p>-does the art work of the artist kadhim nwayer includes unseen patterns ?</p> <p>The importance of the research was raised to find out if the art work of kadhim nwayer did include unseen patterns from the viewpoint and perspective of the cultural criticism.</p> <p>The second chapter included the theoretical frame which has three units , the first unit dealt with the sources of the cultural criticism, the second unit included the idea of the unseen patterns were the third unit had to deal with the study of the variation in the unseen patterns of the Iraqi drawing.</p> <p>The third chapter was assigned to study the procedures of the research, were the research society with all its available ideals , resources , books , magazines , the internet and what has been collect from the artist him self.</p> <p>For the research there were three art works for the artist kadhim nwayer were chosen.</p> <p>The chosen research way were the discribtional anlytical way, were the researcher depended with way of research on the theoretical frame in analysis&nbsp; of the research sample and at the end on the samples analysis.</p> <p>The fourth chapter had the results and the research conclusion along with the unseen patterns in the art work of the artist and showing the different cases of the unseen patterns and its variations, along with the conclusions that showed us the effect of the variation in the local and social environment on the formation of the unseen patterns in the unconsciousness&nbsp;&nbsp; that describes the unseen events in the Iraqi community which reflects the active presence in the art experiments of the artist Kadhim Nwayer.</p> Nadia Ayub Essa, Tswahin Taklif Majid Majid Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Features of Tourist Movement in Hashemia District <p>Tourism is one of the most important economic activities which has witnessed a great development in recent times, because it is one of the pillars of comprehensive economic development. As the area of ​​study is active in the tourism movement resulting from the passage of visitors from the southern provinces to visit the holy shrines in Karbala and Najaf where tourists and visitors visit shrines, religious sites, some recreational sites, and other places in the region. Repeating&nbsp; visitsthe study area will be known spicily that it embraces many religious shrines, archaeological sites and natural sites that encourage tourism. The field study showed that 87% of the population of the region is for the purpose of religious tourism, and 34% came from parts of the other province of Babylon, and the proportion of females is 80%. It was also found that 64% of visitors come to the area with their families. Thus, the study area is witnessing a remarkable tourist movement, and it is important to develop it to have a bigger role in their economies..</p> <p>&nbsp;It is also to give the archaeological areas more attention, developing, provide it with comfort sites, publishing tourist index, give antiquities sites more attention and encourage tourism&nbsp; trips toward them, as well as the promotion of traditional industries , make them accessible to tourists and visitors for their media role and economic importance.</p> Abdul Zahra A. Al Jenaby , Ahmed M. Shafey Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact of the Cold War on the Gensis and Development of the Central Intelligence Agency(CIA) until 1955 <p>The circumstances of the Cold War forced Washington's administration in 1947 to set up a new intelligence body at the level of the challenges of that war, which would appear to go beyond the use of conventional military weapons to other political, economic and media-psychological weapons. These weaponsare primarily based on the state's intelligence capability, which the White House administration realized when it discovered that it was too late to obtain the necessary information to refine its political decisions, and realized that it was incapable of knowing not only the Soviet Union, but also its ally Britain. The presidential order was issued due to the creation of a Soviet-British intelligence agency.</p> <p>The CIA was established independently of all ministries and directly related to the president. This was the reason for the differences between them and the sovereign ministries, especially foreign affairs and defence, which hindered the Agency's work initially. The Agency could not get rid of that differences, but it did during the reign of President Eisenhower, who had administrative and intelligence experience made him overcome the barrier by appointing the two brothers Dallas in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the presidency of the Agency in order to cooperate.The role of the agency in President Truman's policy was not impressive, but it was unimpressive to the sovereign ministries, because the agency did not get the president's confidence in drawing and defining the political bases, but (as he sees it)the Agency was only to supply information; therefore, the Agency did not succeed in most of its work except for the implementation of the Marshall Plan.In the Eisenhower era, the agency became the main actor in drawing and defining the political foundations as well as the implementation. It played a prominent role in the policy of emancipation and the formulation of its methods, and then implemented it beyond the work of the information dimension to other theoretical and practical dimensions.</p> Hussein Mohsen Hashim Al-Qaseer Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Thu, 11 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Village Market Poem. A Reading in the Communicative Approach <p>The research is based on the study of communication as a modern approach that is relied on by many writers, especially poets of the modern age, where they build the texts of their poems through the employment of the cultural heritage, social and civil, inspired by the life they lived on the homeland and they transferred that heritage and made it pillars On the basis of the artistic construction of the poem, and they re-produced others to fit the basic idea that the poet wants to connect to the recipient.</p> Salima Swadi Zaghir Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Thu, 11 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of the Curriculum of the Project Material for Art Education According to the Data of Pragmatic Philosophy. <p>She studied researcher origination pragmatic philosophy and the most important legality , Where aimed at evaluating the vocabulary approach the fourth stage of the substance of the project according to the data of pragmatic philosophy adopted researcher vocabulary approach documented in the archives of the Department of Art Education , University of Baghdad , and exited researcher Bonmozj of the items of the curriculum after it was presented to a group of gentlemen experts investigating student training on the implementation mechanisms of the project using models inspired by the arts , according to data pragmatic philosophy.&nbsp;</p> Amal Hassen Ebrahim Al Gzaly. Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Thu, 11 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Sorma Khanem and the Nestorian Patriarchate the Years of Loss and the Horrors of War 1883-1918 <p>This woman was known assumra or surmah and in the well- known the house of the marashmayoun family whose sous were allowy to sit on the patriarchal throne of the church of the east for sereral centuries and then this is the adequate of the bitterness of his stallicbeaple the casualty of the original evangelical tissue the are illustrated by adesberate people of his future befor world war the nesatorianhristians were independent led pyatribal tribal system under anthority Chaldean Assyrian this woman once blayedaninfluential role in the civili of nation&nbsp; that had its past civilijatian and value.</p> Ali Talib Obead Al- Sultany Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 15 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Representations of Popular Culture in Graphite Art <p>The current research that bears title: Representations of popular culture in graphite Art</p> <p>The aim of this research is to identify the representations of popular culture in the graphite Art</p> <p>Limitations of the study: identify the representations of popular culture in graphite Art drawings in the United States and European countries for the period (1983-2016)</p> <p>The research procedures included a description of the research community and to limit the size of the sample, which consisted of (5) modes that were selected in a deliberate manner. The correctness of the search tool was achieved (88%). The stability of the tool was achieved (84.75%) through a number of statistical methods.</p> <p>Findings which researcher reached are:</p> <p>- The culture and art of the elite has been undermined by moving away from artistic productions characterized by aristocratic arrogance, modernist and classical forms. This was shown in all models of the research sample, which emphasizes the representation of popular culture in these models.</p> <p>- The topics dealt with in these works derive their components and elements from the vocabulary of daily life of the new civil subjects with funny, comic, and fun and not without Strange. All this confirms that represent the new sensitivity represented by popular culture in all sample models.</p> <p>- The topics of the current research sample models do not separate from the world of fashion, chaos, scattering, temptations of the body and everything that is fleeting and fast of relations and all are related to globalization, which is one of the features of popular culture.</p> Hussein Alis Shnawa , Ali Mahdi Majid Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 15 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 Representations of Quranic Stories in Children's Drawings <p>The art of drawing one of the important means used by man to express his feelings and thoughts and needs and inclinations relations of lines and spaces, colors and shapes in multiple formats aesthetic.</p> <p>Art began with the early origins of man, primitive man was painted on the walls of caves layouts to express his ideas to others, and with the evolution and the emergence of civilizations and then the descent of the divine religions successive, including the Islamic religion, which has taken a number of the many methods to achieve the goals and religious purposes, which came for it the story was one of the most important of these methods, as replete with Quranic texts with many diverse stories, and the importance of those stories in the socialization of children, because they represent the basic building block of society, where the mayors educators to employ them within the educational tools because they represent the tolerant Islamic religion in general principles. Hence it identified the problem of current research follows by asking: What are the representations of Quranic stories in the children's drawings?</p> <p>. Find the four chapters have been included, and are as follows:</p> <p>Chapter One included a research problem and the importance of research and the need for it, then the aim of the research and its borders as well as the definition of terminology.</p> <p>The second chapter: it contains the theoretical framework of the research and previous studies, as it included the theoretical framework of the first two sections: the Quranic stories, and the second section children's drawings.</p> <p>While the third quarter included a research procedures as the researcher reviewed the research community and the specimens and the instrument used and which was extracted and the validity and reliability of a tool representations Quranic stories in the children's drawing analysis has been subjected to research data for statistical means.</p> <p>The fourth quarter included: Search results and conclusions, as well as recommendations and proposals, and highlighted the findings of the research: -</p> <p>Representations of Quranic stories displayed on the children's fees as follows: -</p> <p>1- The concept of the prophets, where represent this concept a passage (not visible facial features) repetition of $ (26) and percentage (%48.15), a high percentage when compared to paragraph (appearance of facial features), which recorded a repeat of (5) and percentage (%9.27).</p> <p>2- &nbsp;miracle: where this concept represents a paragraph (swallow a whale of the Prophet) repeat of (9) and a percentage of (%16,67), and paragraph (pronounced whale of the Prophet), where the first recorded the same percentage.</p> <p>3- the worship of idols: where this concept represents a paragraph (knees) repeat of (2) and a percentage of (%3,70) , and paragraph (prostration) where he recorded the same percentage.</p> <p>4 - fear or beg: where this concept represents a paragraph (prayers) repeat of (4) and the percentage of (7,41), and paragraph (crying) repeat (9) and a percentage of (%16,67).</p> <p>5 - divine torment and caused: where represent this concept paragraph (clouds of black) repeating (7) and a percentage of (%12.96),and paragraph (the heart of the ship and show partial whale) repetition of $ (7) and a percentage of (%12.96).</p> <p>In light of these results it was concluded as follows:</p> <p>1- representations of Quranic stories in children's drawings appeared during the technical characteristics of children's drawings.</p> <p>2-The Quranic stories an important educational tool for those interested in child-rearing and refined by studying art education and what it contained those stories from multiple educational values ​​(such as honesty, love, cooperation, patience... Etc.).</p> <p>The researcher recommended the following:</p> <p>4- by the concerned authorities in the Ministry of Education attention Quranic stories and what it contained these stories from multiple educational values, and to provide primary and secondary schools especially films such stories.</p> <p>The researcher is supposed to conduct a study on the educational values ​​in the Quranic stories, and a study on the impact of Quranic stories on artistic expression among students of the Faculty of Fine Arts.</p> <p><br>3-Using Koranic stories by teachers and teachers of technical education and that because of the impact on artistic expression they have.</p> Baydaa Kadhim Oleiw Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 15 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Function of Body Language in Holy Quran, as Well as Investigating its Implication and its Translations into Persian <p>As one of the most important tools to communicate, language plays a key role to transfer the meanings and emotions. These meanings and emotions, which are called "messages", are divided into two groups, verbal and nonverbal. Body language, with a close relationship to culture, is one of the nonverbal tools to deliver a message. This study, by using a descriptive-analytical method, investigates the role of body language in holy Quran and its functions in message delivery. In the same vein, body language-related implications, which have been mentioned in holy Quran, have been explained using some old Arabic poems and Persian poems. In order to do this, 152 verses of holy Quran have mentioned human’s body organs. The investigation revealed that among these verses, 75 of them show body language. Further assessment of these verses proved that 70 percent of the body language implications are similar in Persian and Arabic, so translators have used the Persian equivalents in order to translate them. Furthermore, almost 30 percent of these meanings have been translated based on the cultural context of the destination language, which is Persian.</p> Yusuf Nazari, Zahra Sakhaei Manesh Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 15 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Right in Natural Resources <p>The existence of natural resources on the earth is one of the basics of the continuation of life in it, because in short, ownership of their children, it is impossible to imagine the existence of human life free of natural resources. The interest in wealth is a real guarantee that crystallizes on one of the legal aspects of the state, namely respect for human rights, including the right to exploit wealth in favor of saving lives, reducing poverty levels and enhancing levels of economic development.</p> <p>The attention to modern rights has been replaced by the rapid developments at the level of international law, which will then move on to national constitutions. This right has been placed in the hands of the authors of constitutions as one of the elements of the constitutional system, which adopts the democratic approach as a method of governance, Applicable everywhere.</p> <p>The formulation of the right to wealth in the constitutional documents did not take a unified pattern, but rather a variation from one constitution to another. The legislator recognized this right and made it the property of the state as the legal and legitimate representative of the people, exercising political power on his behalf. As well as the Constitution requires them to provide the maximum degree of legal protection and non-exhaustion to access to comprehensive economic development</p> Maitham Manfi Kazem Al Amidi Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 15 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Legislative Inadequacy in Iraqi Legislators' Regulation to Ending Disciplinary Punishment of Abrogation (Comparative Study) <p>It is common Knowledge, that the administration cannot working without the human will, that express on it, since then the legislations have given great attention to public official, and his legal situation. the most important concern of public official in this regard, is providing the functional guarantees, including these related with disciplinary punishments, weather from impose its or finding the methods to eliminate its effects. The Iraqi legislator&nbsp; characterized with providing means that enable the public official to eliminating the disciplinary punishments and remove its impacts, not only by judicial means, but through the mandatory petition, as the Iraqi legislator adopted the system of "thanks and appreciation", to remove the impacts of some of disciplinary punishments, and&nbsp;&nbsp; mitigate the others.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>In addition to abrogation&nbsp; the disciplinary&nbsp; punishment after a certain period of time or what was called the&nbsp; revocation, while other legal systems named it erased. It should be noted that while we support the Iraq legislators' view, put this view had been flawed,&nbsp; so this lead as to devote this thesis to deals with this shortcoming by organizing the mean of abrogation the disciplinary punishment after certain period of time.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sadiq Mohammed Ali, Qassim Kareem Abbas Abbas Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Tue, 06 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0000 The Jurisdiction in Litigation Before the Courts of Administrative Judge: (Comparative Study) <p>The theory of jurisdiction in the judiciary , generally, based on elements: functional, qualitative and spatial jurisdiction, and is concerned with identifying disputes that belong to&nbsp; the jurisdiction of each court. It also supposes the multiplicity of courts within the judicial system to simplify litigation procedures and meet the requirements of justice. Therefore, the legislator is concerned with the split the jurisdiction of the courts into different courts. Thus, the administrative judiciary, when it originated in France, evolved in many periods&nbsp; until it reached the diversity and multiplicity&nbsp; that allowed the judiciary to meet the requirements of justice. Consequently the&nbsp; Act of May 24, 1872, authorized the French State Council the jurisdiction of authorized judiciary, after that established the&nbsp; administrative courts in 1957, and courts of appeal in 1987. In Iraq,&nbsp; the Iraqi legislator after had adopted the double justice in the second amendment to the Iraqi State Council Amended Act. No. (65)&nbsp; of 1979. After that enacted the Fifth Amendment to occur An important development in the rules of jurisdiction. However, the legal regulation of these rules still needs a lot of legislative solutions because of the many practical problems raised by the issue of jurisdiction in parallel with the shortage of the relevant legal texts.</p> Sadiq Mohammed Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Mon, 02 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0000