JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 2019-07-30T09:31:20+00:00 Prof. Dr. Wesam Bhaya Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> Comparative Study of CD105 and Ki-67 in Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma and Polymorphous Low Grade Adenocarcinoma of the Salivary Glands 2019-07-10T08:11:12+00:00 Mohammed I. Abed Lehadh M. Al-Azzawi <p><strong>Background: </strong>The intersecting clinicopathological features and histological patterns, including cribriform, tubular and solid patterns of adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) and polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA) may end in a problematic diagnosis .ACC has a worse prognosis than &nbsp;PLGA making distinction important for therapeutic and prognostic purposes . The Aims of this study were to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and Ki-67 in adenoid cystic carcinoma and polymorphous low grade adeoncarcinoma of the salivary glands and to correlate the immunoexpression of these proteins with the clinicopathological findings.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods</strong></p> <p>In this retrospective study , fifty &nbsp;of archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue samples of salivary gland malignancies &nbsp;were used, &nbsp;twenty five&nbsp; blocks of &nbsp;adenoid cystic carcinomas &nbsp;&nbsp;and twenty five&nbsp; blocks of &nbsp;polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma obtained from the archives of the department of oral pathology / college of dentistry / Baghdad university, Al-Shaheed Ghazi hospital, were included &nbsp;in our study. Four micrometer sections gained and immunostained using monoclonal antibody against CD105 and Ki-67. The immunoexpression was identified &nbsp;by the presence of brown stain in the cytoplasm of tumor cell in CD105 and the presence of brown stain in the nucleus &nbsp;of tumor cell in Ki-67. The proportion of cells that expressed the stain was correlated with the clinicopathological data of the patients.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: CD105 expression was found positive in 21 cases of ACC and 20cases of PLGA localized in tumor cells.</p> <p>&nbsp;andKi-67 expression was found positive in 24 cases of ACC and 23 casesof PLGA localized in tumor cells.</p> <p>Non- significant &nbsp;statistical &nbsp;relation &nbsp;(P=0.801) was &nbsp;detected &nbsp;regarding CD105 &nbsp;expression &nbsp;in &nbsp;both &nbsp;types &nbsp;of &nbsp;tumor and non- significant &nbsp;statistical &nbsp;relation (P= 0.852) was detected&nbsp; regarding Ki-67 expression in both types of tumor .</p> <p>Non- significant &nbsp;statistical &nbsp;relation &nbsp;(P= 0.05) was &nbsp;detected &nbsp;regarding CD105 and Ki-67 expression &nbsp;in relation to sex, site and stage in &nbsp;both &nbsp;types &nbsp;of &nbsp;tumor.</p> <p>Conclusion: Weak expression CD105 and&nbsp; Ki-67 in ACC and PLGA&nbsp; might be explained by CD105 and&nbsp; Ki-67 did &nbsp;not represent an exclusive factors consequently; other factors might be involved in the proliferation, progression and &nbsp;metastasis of both tumor types.</p> <p><strong>K</strong><strong>ey words:</strong> Adenoid cystic carcinoma<strong>, </strong>Polymorphous low grade adenocarcinoma , immunohistochemistry, CD105 and Ki-67. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon The Role of Banking Companies in Controlling Money Laundering Operations Applied Study on Banking Companies in Basra Governorate 2019-07-25T08:39:31+00:00 Ali Taha Yaseen <p>The aim of this research is to clarify the role of the banking companies in monitoring the operations of the money laundering in the province of Basra through the knowledge of the methods that are followed by these companies. In this study, the researcher has used a questionnaire that was prepared based on the previous studies and by the additions that were done by the arbitrators and the researcher in order to measure the variables of the study. The researcher has distributed (90) questionnaires to the employees in the banking companies. Moreover, the researcher has used SPSS program for the statistical analysis based on the five-dimensional Liker scale, the mean, the standard deviation, and the relative weight.</p> <p>The search a number of results. The most important one is that the role that is played by the banking companies has a strong impact on controlling the operations of the money laundering. In addition, the researcher has also a number of recommendations. The most important ones are; banking companies should pay an extra attention in applying the methods of their followed oversights and increasing the cooperation and the coordination with the Central Bank by appointing a specified employee to follow up the procedures of money laundering operations that are issued</p> 2019-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Estimation of the Genetic Parameters of the Growth Characteristics in Rice crop (Oryza sativa L.) by Effect of Two Methods Irrigation 2019-06-23T10:35:59+00:00 Abdullah F. Serheed Haider B. Ahmed <p>Field experiments were carried out for 2017 agricultural season in Babylon /Musaib-Albojasem region 35 km west north of the governorate to evaluate the performance of seven genotypes of rice (<em>Oryza sativa</em> L.) Genetic, environmental and phenotypic variances, heritability percent in the broad sense, genetic and phenotypic Different Coefficients, effect of irrigation methods (flooding and intermittent irrigation) of the genotypes (Amber33, Dijla, Mashkhab 2, Forat, Pernameg4, Yasmin and Ghadir)</p> <p>&nbsp;The research center of the rice in Al-Mashkhab using the experiment of split plots in randomized complete Block design (RCBD) with three replicates. The results can be summarized as follows:</p> <ol> <li class="show">The genotypes showed significant differences on the 5% probability level for all studied traits.</li> <li class="show">The genotype Amber 33 superior to all other traits except for the number of effective branches for genotype Forat.</li> <li class="show">The method of irrigation by flooding showed significant superiority of all studied traits.</li> <li class="show">The genetic variance values were higher than the environmental variability values of all traits except for the number of branches.</li> <li class="show">The estimates of heritability values ​​in the broad sense indicated that they were high for all traits.</li> <li class="show">6. The values of the phenotypic and genetic differences were different between low values of the number of days from planting to 50% flowering and medium for the other traits except for the area of the leaf it was high for the irrigation methods and the low of the number of branches. panicle.</li> </ol> 2019-06-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Evaluation of Mortality Rates for Children under the Age Group (1-3) Years in Babil Governorate for (2010-2017) by Using Linear Regression Model 2019-06-23T10:54:16+00:00 Asmaa Shaker Ashoor Ali Abdul Karim Kadim Naji <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The phenomenon of child mortality is one of the most important societal phenomena that have been studied, evaluated and evaluated by a large number of statisticians and academic researchers, as well as by international health organizations that concern children in particular and the health of society in general[1]. This phenomenon has witnessed changes in rates over the past decades due to several related conditions such as lack of health awareness, health care programs, family health and others. Undernourishment, wars, migration, fertility, epidemics, etc. are all factors that can contribute to the growth of child mortality, especially those under five years of age [9] [10]. In recent years, globally, there has been significant progress in reducing child mortality rates for the under-5 population, falling to 5.6 (6.0, 6.0) million in 2016 from 12.6 (12.4, 12.8) in 1990. It has reached 15,000 deaths On the day of 2016, compared with 35,000 deaths per day in 1990. Approximately 39-44 deaths per 1000 live births in 2016, up from 92-95 per 1,000 live births in 1990. The neonatal mortality rate was 49% lower in 2016 than in 1990. Half of all child deaths in the world are represented by the Republics: India, Pakistan, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Ethiopia. In Iraq, however, the situation is not very different from those countries where mortality rates have increased significantly due to the health and environmental conditions and the economic embargo that lasted from 1990 to 2003 and the consequent lack of food and basic medical supplies and wars that left many epidemics and diseases and As well as the political and security instability since the US invasion of Iraq in 2003 till the recent time. All these factors have had a clear effect on the growth of children mortality. Therefore, there was necessary to study deeply to analyze this phenomenon on scientific and statistical basis, enabling the health authorities and organizations concerned with children Protection to adopt a methodology and plans to reduce this phenomenon in order to preserve the future of our generations and to promote a healthy reality to build a healthy society[11]. In this study, linear regression models (simple, quadratic and cubic) will be used to analyze mortality data and to compare the mortality rates of the age groups under study with height and explanatory power indicates and the acceptability of each model in the interpretation of mortality.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Analysis of the Correlation between the Overhead and Inflation in Iraq`s Economy for the Period (2002–2015) 2019-06-23T11:07:48+00:00 Shaima Abdelhadi Hussein <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Public expenditure is one of the main pillars on which the government is based in achieving specialized financial functions (efficient allocation of available and distributional economic resources, distribution certificates , stability of economic stability) and the impact of increasing the volume of cash in lraq as a result of the expansion of the role of the state and the financing method under exceptional circumstances or through the new cash issue or public loans and their money from the impact of high inflation rates and the general high level of prices continuously during the period of research , Expenditure , inflation , inflationary gap.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon The Possibility of Applying the Program and Performance Budget in Iraqi Universities Descriptive Analytical Study of the University of Babylon 2019-07-04T07:27:00+00:00 Kareem J. Abass <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;The study aimed to analyze the concept of the budget of the programs and performance, the methodology of its application and the advantages obtained from it and to find out the deficiencies in the traditional budgets currently applied. The common factor of all the concepts of the program budget and performance was based on linking the programs of government units with the general objectives of the state. Accounting for the money to focus on the services provided by government units in the output data class The study also ranked the priorities of the transformation in accordance with the vision and experience of international institutions and countries that have developed the budget method of She has.</p> <p>The study gained its importance by addressing the analysis and the conclusion of the balance of programs and performance and the achievements of many of the pros that can be used in the development of the performance of Iraqi universities as the cornerstone of the development process in society. The study concluded several results, the most important of which was the inability of the traditional method of balancing the Iraqi universities (Babylon University) to be an effective tool for planning and control, and that the standards and indicators of performance required to be developed to be able to meet the performance of universities and most recommended by the study is the adoption of the Ministry of Higher Education and Research Scientific evaluation of programs and performance because they have a role in the development and analysis of strategic plans and linking them in the goals.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Evaluation of Post-Operative Complications of Subcondylar Fractures Treated with Conservative Method 2019-06-23T11:25:30+00:00 Luay Hatem Jalil <p><strong>The aim</strong>: The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate the scope of conservative method effectiveness in the treatment of sub-condylar fracture of the mandible through the assessment the possible complications.</p> <p><strong>Materials and method:</strong> 20 patients with unilateral sub-condylar fracture were treated with conservative method by arch bar and stainless steel wires, and then evaluate the possible post-operative complications, the follow up examinations, including clinical, radiographic measurements, and subjective parameter like pain by visual analogue scale (VAS) for&nbsp;&nbsp; period of (4) months, including (6) visits .</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Post-operatively, regarding deviation, radiographically, in (70%) of the patients, the deviation is not significant (&lt;3%) [i.e. the deviation not clear clinically, although it indeed radiographically exist],in (15%) of the patients is significant (&gt;3%) [clinically mild deviation],and the others (15%)of the patients are symmetrical (0%). The visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain shows significant mean difference related to sex (p=0.031), the pain is higher in female, however, it decreases in both sexes with the time. There is a significant indirect strong correlation (p=0.001) between pain and mouth opening limitation. Lastly, the limitation of mouth opening is not significant to sex ,age, deviation, or the&nbsp; cause of&nbsp; fracture.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The adjustment of occlusion during IMF for patient with subcondylar fracture treated with closed reduction, play an important role in minimizing the possible post-operative facial asymmetry. Most patients with subcondylar fracture, especially those with mild or moderate displacement (less than 45 degrees) can be successfully treated with closed reduction with minimal post-operative complications.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Knowledge Sharing and its Role in Achieving Competitive Advantage for the Healthy Organizations Exploratory Research in the Women and Obstetrics Hospital / Holy Karbolaa 2019-06-23T11:39:00+00:00 Ali Abd Alamir Abd Alhussein Kmona Rana Nasir Saber Nagham Daikh Abed Ali <p>The research topic tackled knowledge sharing and its role in achieving competitive advantage for the healthy organizations, The research sought to achieve several objectives, the most important of which was (Knowledge of the importance of knowledge sharing and the competitive advantage of the organization as one of the vital variables important to the life of all organizations, including health organizations, And diagnose the nature of relationships of the correlation and effect between the knowledge sharing and competitive advantage In the surveyed hospital .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Due to the importance of the health sector and its role in meeting the health and safety requirements, The research was carried out in (The Women and Obstetrics Hospital / Holy Karbolaa), where the research was conducted on a sample of (85) people working in various positions within the administrative staff of the surveyed hospital .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The research was based in its practical framework on the questionnaire to acquire data and information. In order to process these data and information, the researchers used a set of statistical methods (Alpha Cronbach test, weighted mean, standard deviation, variance coefficient, response strength, correlation coefficient, simple linear regression, Interpretation coefficient R<sup>2</sup> , F test, and T test) .&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study concluded with a number of conclusions, the most important of which are (the interest of the hospital in all variables and the dimensions of the research subject, The existence of correlation and effect relationships between all search variables with their sub-dimensions), The research also led to several recommendations, the most important of which is the (necessity of directing the hospital leadership to reduce the Obstacles, constraints and barriers that prevent the transmission, exchange and participation of knowledge among all departments and people of the hospital, and provide the necessary professional requirements at the human and technological level</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Petrology and Mineralogy of Jabal Sanam Carbonate Rocks, Basrah, Iraq 2019-06-27T07:41:57+00:00 Zainab Q. Al-Mudhafar Sa'ad Z. Al-Mashaikie <p>The field observation confirms the Sanam salt plug in southern Iraq composed essentially of successive sedimentary rocks interbedded with three igneous dikes and metamorphosed rocks. The tectonic and structural features of this Mountain are faults, minor folds and slickensides; In addition to several types of primary and secondary sedimentary structures. The exposed rocks capped and surroundings belong with the Dibdibba Formation (Pliocene - Pleistocene).</p> <p>Petrographical and XRD analyses of (27) thin sections show that the investigated rocks consist dominantly of dolomite represents the dominant mineral with few to trace amount such as gypsum and quartz. Where A variety of dolomite rock units (carbonate breccias, stromatolite dolomite, dolomite and gypsiferous dolomite) of the Jabal Sanam plug have been identified and studied.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Dolomites of the Jabal Sanam are interpreted as stromatolitic bindstones which formed in intertidal to supratidal environment. Where this dolomites are similar to most dark gray dolomites are common in many salt plugs of the Arabian Gulf, Oman and Iran. They seem to be an essential and consistent part of the Hormuz Series. Severe tectonic movements during the exhumation phase led to the formation of the carbonate breccia at the uppermost part of the deposit. Streaks of organic matter probably result from oxygen-poor conditions during the Infra-Cambrian; Suggest that dolomitization could be an alternative dolomaitization model.</p> <p>Dolomitization is believed to be related to a shallow setting and brine reflux. The Jabal Sanam dolomites experienced extensive recrystallization and sulfatiza during the emplacement of the salt dome.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Correlation between Biofilm Formation, Multi-Drug Resistance and AlgD Gene among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates 2019-06-27T08:33:35+00:00 Asmaa O. Namuq Khalid O. Mohammed Ali Ahmed H. Al-Ani <p><strong>Background:</strong> <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa </em>is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium that associated with persistent infections that are difficult to eradicate. <strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to determine biofilm forming potential of <em>P. aeruginosa</em> and its correlation with antibiotics resistance and presence of AlgD gene. <strong>Materilals and Methods:</strong> The present study carried out in Azady teaching general hospital in Kirkuk city during the period from August 2017 to May 2018, one hundred isolates of <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> had been obtained from (1260) different clinical specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by <a href="">Kirby-Bauer method</a>, biofilm formation analyzed by Microtiter plate quantitative method, and AlgD gene was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).<strong>Results: </strong>A lower percentage of antibiotic resistance was against piperacillin/tazobactam (5%), cefepime (24%), and ceftazidime (26%) while, higher resistance percentage was seen against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (98%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (97%), multi-drug resistance (MDR) formed (60%) of total isolates. Biofilm formation found in (98%) of total isolates. AlgD gene detected by PCR technique found in (98%) of total isolates, AlgD gene was found only in biofilm former isolates. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> Significant correlation found between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Strong correlation observed between presence of AlgD gene and biofilm formation.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Investigate of the Energy Gap, Ionic Charge and Infrared Spectra (IR) Of Ge Nanocrystals 2019-06-27T09:10:54+00:00 Hussein Fadhal Hussein <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Density functional theory (DFT) has been used in this work at the B3LYP level with (6-31G**) basis set to find out Energy Gap, Ionic Charge and Infrared Spectra (IR) of Ge&nbsp; Nanocrystals for crystal&nbsp; 8, 16 , 54 , 64 and 128 atoms, the study shows that the energy gap decrease with increasing of the number of atoms in crystal which have the same lattice constant approximately .</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; While the atomic charge is studied for two states,&nbsp; the 8 and 64 atoms oxygenated surfaces, the results show that there is a gradient of net charge from the oxygen atoms on the surface toward the Ge atoms at the center of each crystal,</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; According to Infrared spectra there are two types of stretching vibration, symmetric and asymmetric, the symmetric stretching happens when the&nbsp; bonds of the same atoms vibrate in the same phase which appear as peak&nbsp; point, and the asymmetric stretching happens when the bonds vibrate in different phases which appear as bottom point.</p> 2019-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Coptodon zillii Fish as a New Host for Two Digenae Asymphylodora demeli Markovskii, 1935 and Asymphylotrema macracetabulum Belous, 1953 at Al-Musaib City 2019-07-02T07:46:36+00:00 Bashar Abdul-Hussain Al-Sa'adi <p>During October 2016, ten <em>Coptodon&nbsp; zillii</em> fishes has been fishing from Euphrates River at Al-Musaib city, after interior exam two digenae was isolated: <em>Asymphylodora demeli </em>&nbsp;Markovskii, 1935 and <em>Asymphylotrema macracetabulum </em>Belous, 1953 from the intestinal, it found for the first time in this fish&nbsp; in Iraq, so it regarded as new hosts for both species.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon On Locally S-prime and Locally S-Primary Submodules 2019-06-30T09:47:10+00:00 Adil Kadir Jabbar Payman Mahmood Hamaali Abdullah M. Abdul-Jabbar <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Throughout this article, we present locally prime, locally primary and locally S-semiprime submodules, as generalizations of prime, primary and semiprime submodules respectively. We investigate some properties and characterizations of these modules. For a multiplication module, the concepts of locally primary and locally primary are equivalent. Finally, we give the following result, if &nbsp;is multiplication module, then &nbsp;is locally primary submodule, if there exists a locally primary ideal of &nbsp;such that &nbsp;and . We provided that, every locally semiprime submodule of multiplication module is the intersection of some locally prime submodule.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon The Use of a Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming Model to Achieve a Balanced Optimal Solution of the Traveling Salesman Problem with Case Study (Iraq) 2019-06-30T10:31:52+00:00 Mohammed Saad Ibrahim Mohammed <p>Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) is one of the most important Integer Programming Problems (IPP) in the field of Operations Research (OR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), this problem has been discussed under different titles and has been solved using different methods, but not limited to; Genetic Algorithms (GA), Linear Programming (LP) and Fuzzy Linear Programming (FLP). But the majority of these research has taken special case studies and virtual examples where the number of nodes is very small and doesn't exceed five nodes in often and it is known that this number does not represent a realistic solution to the problems of the real world; as well as that this research did not explain in detail how to solve (TSP) by using Fuzzy Multi-Objective Linear Programming (FMOLP) with sub-tours. From this point of view, this research has been resolved (TSP) in all cities of Iraq (18 cities) by using the approach of (max-min) where associated with (FMOLP) model, real-world problems are characterized by multi-objective, and most of the information available about real-life systems is in a uncertainty environment, thus, fuzzy methods have been designed to deal with such problems by finding optimal solutions for models that include multi-objective function or fuzzy parameters. We found the optimal solution for the search model based on the readymade program (<em>Win QSB</em>) respective of operational research applications.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis: Bacteriological Antimicrobial Susceptibility Study in Duhok Province, Iraq 2019-07-09T09:22:51+00:00 Muna S. Al-Delaimi Mariam Nabeel <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Early neonatal infection is obvious problem resulting in significant morbidity and mortality especially preterm neonates, therefore rapid diagnosis and early treatment paramount to avoid death. The current study was design to determine the frequency of bacterial isolates causing early onset neonatal sepsis and their susceptibility patterns in Duhok province, in which carried out on newborns were admitted to the preterm unit and intensive care unit (ICU) in Maternity &amp; Obstetric Hospital in Duhok/ Iraq, from November 2015 to December 2016. Patients were classified in to two groups (proven and clinical sepsis) according to the clinical signs and blood culture.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Collected blood samples were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion broth and check daily for 3 days for presence of visible microbial growth. Then all purified isolates were confirmed by using BD- Phoenix™ identification and susceptibility testing system &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;provides rapid, accurate and reliable detection of known and emerging antimicrobial&nbsp; &nbsp;resistance. All data obtained, were analyzed by SPSS version 23 windows and Microsoft Excel (2013). One-hundred twenty neonates were studied and the proven sepsis was found in 91(75.8%) cases, while 29 (24.1%) cases reported as negative blood culture. Gram negative bacteria were responsible for most cases of neonatal sepsis 62(68.1%) while Gram positive bacteria were 29(31.9%). The most frequent isolated pathogens were <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> 30(33%), Coagulase negative <em>Staphylococcus</em> 24(26.4%), <em>Escherechia coli</em> 19 (20.9%),<em> Pseudomonas </em><em>aeruginosa</em> 9 (9.9%), followed by <em>Enterobacter aerogenes</em> and <em>Streptococcus </em><em>agalactiae</em> 3(3.3%),<em> Enterococcus faecalis</em> 2(2.2%), and one isolate of <em>Shigella </em><em>dysenteriae</em> (1.1%). <strong>In conclusion:</strong> EOS mainly associated with gram negative bacteria, <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> found to be the predominant pathogens. The result of our study reveals that all isolates (both gram negative and gram positive bacteria) were multidrug resistant.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> 2019-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon The Concept of (Gem-Set) in Topology, A Review 2019-07-23T10:11:53+00:00 Ahmed B AL-Nafee Ahmed Hasan Hamed <p>The (Gem-Sets) were known since 2013 and because of their wide using in characterization of new topological concepts as: separation axioms, compactness, continuity and other important concepts, we introduced this article to give the most important previous studies about this subject as a historical study.</p> 2019-06-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Consumer Protection in Iraq and the Possibility of Benefiting from the Experience of the United Kingdom 2019-07-10T06:26:24+00:00 Abdulkareem J. Shinjar Haidar K. Mahdi <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Transition to a market economy in Iraq after 2003 Many of the negatives that have a direct impact on the economic sectors, Domestic markets have seen the entry of various types of foreign goods Beneficiaries of weak customs regulations and laws governing the entry of such goods Which directly affected the overall economic activity These conditions affect not only the productive sectors but also the realities of the consumer which has been greatly affected by the status quo, and has caused a lot of risks and damage Which resulted from the use or consumption of fraudulent or poor goods In addition to pollution of the environment by various types of pollutants,of the competent government agencies in dealing with these problems</p> <p>For the purpose of familiarity with global experiences in consumer protection, the experience of the United Kingdom has been addressed By addressing the most important administrative and legal procedures Through which the British Government has worked to provide the necessary protection to the consumer In the form that made&nbsp; the Kingdom of the leading and distinguished countries in this field In addition to the possibility of benefiting from this experience in Iraq.</p> 2019-07-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon The Use of Judicial Accounting and Its Impact on the Corporate Governance of Iraqi Companies 2019-07-10T08:10:01+00:00 Donia Jassem <p>The current research highlighted the field of judicial accounting as a new area of ​​accounting, which was concerned by fraud cases in the business environment and clarifying the role of judicial accounting in activating the objectives of corporate governance while highlighting the role of corporate governance in achieving the quality of accounting information over five years (From 2005 to 2010). The researcher adopted the descriptive analytical method by tracking and investigating the research material and analyzing it and extracting the results in addition to the study of the content through studying some references and sources related to judicial accounting and its impact on corporate governance and reviewing some studies and financial lists in the National Company for Chemical and Plastic Industries in Iraq to learn about the reality of judicial accounting And the impact on governance. The results of the research result in a relationship between the stakeholders and the competitiveness of the institution. The sample of the study. The internal audit function in the institution has the sample of the study independently in the performance of its tasks. The researcher has the financial and financial resources necessary to perform his duties. And current and prospective clients for adoption on the basis of consistent accounting and legal rules, and that the work of the internal auditor is subject to independent external evaluation.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Determination of the Role of Regulatory T-cell in Patients with Psoriasis 2019-07-10T11:15:13+00:00 Dina M.R. Alkhafaf <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;Psoriasis is one of most common autoimmune cutaneous diseases of the human communities, current study was aimed to determine the role of&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; T-reg in patients with Psoriasis .Obtained data explained that psorasis is widely distributed disease at Al-Diwanyia city withen different age groups, the most affected group was the group (1-20) years old followed by the group (21-40) years old with tendency to males than females<strong>.</strong> ). The relative gene expression in FoxP3 gene showed increment in patients group (7.89±5.82) compared with control group which was (1.91±1.25), NFAT gene showed increment in patients group (7.66±3.27) compared with control group which was (3.002±0.86). AP1gene showed an increment in patients group (5.34±1.08) compared with control group which was (1.88±1.25)<strong>.</strong> Serum profile of TNF-α in patients appeared to be elevated (194±32.9) pg/ml than control group (112±18.6) pg/ml<strong>.</strong> Obtained data also indicated a remarkable increase in serum concentrations of IL-36 (149.6±31.3)pg/ml, in comparison to control group (37.4±9.9) pg/ml<strong>. </strong>Over all findings reflect the abnormal increased activity of both T-reg and the effector cells which result in the progression of psoriasis.</p> 2019-06-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon Characterisation of Rocking Ratchet with Cold 87Rb Atoms 2019-07-25T10:33:56+00:00 Nihal A. Abdul Wahhab <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; A rocking ratchet phenomenon of directed transport is demonstrated. This has been realised with cold rubidium atoms in one dimensional dissipative optical lattice with <em>lin</em> <em>lin </em>configuration. The temperature of the cold atomic cloud is measured by time of flight technique with 29 . The atom number trapped in the MOT is determined using absorption imaging to be &nbsp;atoms. The results show the influence of the atomic current amplitude by varying the lattice beams parameters. One of the lattice beams is modulated with different modulation depths. It shows that highest modulation values have a higher atomic current. The current amplitude is also depending on the modulation frequencies. The results indicate the possibility of existence the vibrational frequency. The harmonic amplitude ratio varied and found the ratchet current is growing with increasing the amplitude of one of the lattice beams and at a certain value goes down</p> 2019-07-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon The Effect of Financial Indicators on the Gross Domestic Product of the USA Economy for 1990-2015 (A standard study) 2019-07-30T09:31:20+00:00 Abdul Jasem Abbas AlA Allah Adnan Dawood M. AL-Ethary <p>Gross domestic product (GDP) is a major indicator of economy for the United States of America, So the federal government tried to maintain its stability by expanding the growth of public spending, tax revenue and public debt, Which means the use of fiscal policy in the management of the overall supply at the level of the modern economy. This study is aimed to estimate and analyze the impact of financial indicators on economic growth based on time series data covering the period 1990-2015 using the VIF and TOL factors and to test the hypotheses and clarifying the relationship between them to verify the validity of the hypothesis.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The obtained results of the analysis of the standard models of the research show there is a positive effect of the financial indicators on US GDP based on the parameter values of the model, As the increase of public expenditure, public revenues and public debt by 1% will increase the GDP by 0.44%, 0.45%, 0.11% respectively. This is compatible with economic logic and theoretical hypotheses.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The study recommends directing public spending and tax revenue as well as public loans towards productive economic areas which supports economic activity and expansion the supply base to cover growing aggregate demand.</p> 2019-07-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Journal of University of Babylon