JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences 2023-03-05T06:33:22+00:00 Asst .Prof. Dr. Huda Abbas Mohammed Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> Information Hiding Method For Gray Images Using Motif Patterns 2022-12-28T08:11:34+00:00 Elaf Ali Abbood Rafeef Mozher Ketran <p>Information hiding is one of multimedia security tasks need to develop and update in Continuously. Thus, the researchers work in this field and interest in developing and improving the information hiding techniques. In this paper, a new method for develop least significant bits (LSB) method is introduced. The method includes a schema for hiding two bits of secret text in each pixel (least and penultimate bits of pixel) in gray image considering motif Z, U, N, and C patterns. The method is implemented on different standard images with size 512*512 and hide different secret text lengths. The experimental and results show the efficiency of method that hide two bits in each pixel compare with the traditional LSB method that hide one bit of data in each pixel of image. The results show that the proposed method produces a good accuracy of stego image near to the original LSB method in terms of PSNR accuracy metric.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Information Hiding Based on DNA Sequences 2022-12-31T11:48:36+00:00 Defaf Shiker Kadhum Sahar Adil Kadhum <p>Information security is a major source of worry, especially in light of the rapid expansion of internet use in recent years. As a result of this expansion, there have been incidences of illegal access, which have been mitigated by the adoption of a variety of secure communication protocols, including encryption and data concealment. DNA's bio-molecular properties have seen an uptick in popularity as a carrier for cryptography and data hiding in recent years. when information needs to be hidden. Therefore, DNA bases are utilized as information carriers in the data concealing strategy to increase safety. DNA-based steganography and cryptography combine a biological property with conventional methods to provide an algorithm with increased security. Because of their ability to maintain their chemical and biological characteristics, DNA sequences also have a high data capacity.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Improvement the Community Detection with Graph Autoencoder in Social Network Using Correlation-Based Feature Selection Method 2022-12-31T11:59:25+00:00 Hawraa Zuhair Ahmed Asia Mahdi Naser Alzubaidi <p>Background:</p> <p>In this paper, we aim to improve community detection methods using Graph Autoencoder.&nbsp; Community detection is a crucial stage in comprehend the purpose and composition of social networks.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>We propose a Community Detection framework using the Graph Autoencoder (CDGAE) model, we combined the nodes feature with the network topology as input to our method. A centrality measurement-based strategy is used by CDGAE to deal with the featureless dataset by providing artificial attributes to its nodes. The performance of the model was improved by applying feature selection to node features</p> <p>The basic innovation of CDGAE is that added the number of communities counted using the Bethe Hessian Matrix in the bottleneck layer of the graph autoencoder (GAE) structure, to directly extract communities without using any clustering algorithms.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>According to experimental findings, adding artificial features to the dataset's nodes improves performance. Additionally, the outcomes in community detection were much better with the feature selection method and a deeper model. Experimental evidence has shown that our approach outperforms existing algorithms.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>In this study, we suggest a community detection framework using graph autoencoder (CDMEC). In order to take advantage of GAE's ability to combine node features with the network topology, we add node features to the featureless graph nodes using centrality measurement. By applying the feature selection to the features of the nodes, the performance of the model has improved significantly, due to the elimination of data noise. Additionally, the inclusion of the number of communities in the bottleneck layer of the GAE structure allowed us to do away with clustering algorithms, which helped decrease the complexity time. deepening the model also improved the community detection. Because social media platforms are dynamic.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Handwritten Recognition System Based on Machine Learning 2022-12-31T12:15:37+00:00 Ali Abdul Kareem Salman AL-Yassari Hadab Khalid Obayes <p>Background:</p> <p>Handwriting recognition is an important issue nowadays, where handwriting can be a image, document, etc., the ability of a computer to recognize handwritten numbers is very important in more than one application such as translation, reading and number recognition applications. The proposed project provides a system that recognizes handwritten English numbers, the input data being images downloaded from a global dataset. The proposed system consists of a number of stages. The first stage is the preprocessing, which includes resizing of the images to be one size (28 * 28), and then a step (data mapping) is applied. As for the classification stage, it relied on the use of two algorithms, the KNN algorithm and the neural network (error backpropagation). To start the process of training the selected algorithms, the data was divided into two sets, the training setand the test set. Two algorithms were used for the purpose of choosing the best of them, by evaluating their performance using a number of evaluation metrics. Accuracy and Precision were used for the purpose of evaluating the performance of the algorithms. The performance of the KNN algorithm was 0.94 and 0.942 respectively when k = 4. While the best performance reached by the neural network mechanism was 0.98673333 and 0.9698, respectively, at epoch = 15. The neural network (error backpropagation) is shows the best result in the recognation stage</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) technique makes no assumptions about the basic dataset. It is recognized for its effectiveness and ease of use. It is a supervised learning algorithm. To estimate the category of the unlabeled data, a labeled training set containing data points separated into many groups is supplied.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The performance of the KNN model with various values for "K." Since the high value of model accuracy was "0.94", the "4" parameter value is the one that provides the best results and precision was "0.94".</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>The problem of handwritten recognition needs high accuracy and precision indicators show an accurate description of the performance of the algorithms that were employed in the proposed system. The two indicators described the performance of the algorithm (KNN), which gave results (0.94 and 0.942).</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Information Security Using DNA Sequences 2022-12-31T12:28:17+00:00 Hiba Safaa Sahar Adill Ali Yakoob <p>Information security is a significant cause for concern, mainly because of the explosive growth in internet usage over the last few years. Due to this growth, there have been occurrences of unauthorized access, which have been reduced thanks to “using a range of secure communication protocols, such as encryption and data concealment”. Using DNA's bio-molecular capabilities, the usage of DNA as a carrier for encryption and data concealing has increased in recent years. The realization that DNA may function as a transport medium sparked this movement. In this study, we first examine and briefly outline the evolution of the present DNA coding system. After that, the several ways DNA has been used to enhance encryption techniques are categorized. The benefits and drawbacks of these algorithms and the most recent advancements in DNA-based encryption techniques are discussed. Finally, we provide our thoughts on the potential future of DNA-based encryption algorithms.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Prevalence of Human Monkeypox virus 2022-12-31T14:10:04+00:00 Mohammed R. AbdAli Ameera Jasim Nada Khazal K. Hindi <p>Monkeypox virus appeared in the countries of Central and West Africa. Two distinct species have been identified, the West African type and the Congo type, also known as the Central African type.In the outbreak of monkeypox was first discovered in 1958, while the first human case of the disease was diagnosed in 1970 in the Republic of the Congo in a 7-year-old child. The incubation period ranges from 5-21 days.Monkeypox is transmitted to humans by contact with the virus that causes it through;Mouth and contact with infected animals, including mice, rats, and squirrels, common for monkeypox transmission in Africa, during animal bites from infected animals to humans. Touching the fur or skin of animals, or what comes out of them from blood or bodily fluids. In the case of monkeypox, the virus is transmitted from the mother to the fetus. The main symptoms of monkeypox are similar to the symptoms of smallpox, but they are milder, with the only difference being swollen lymph nodes, fever, headache, backache, cough, sore throat, stuffy nose, fatigue, exhaustion and sweating. The rash of monkeypox begins to appear after 1 - 3 days from the patient with fever, which appears on the face first, then the body begins to spread to the rest of the parts, such as the hands, legs, inside the mouth, genitals, conjunctiva, and the cornea. A complication of monkeypox is Secondary bacterial infection, such as pneumonia, encephalitis, and eye infection.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon The effect of Silymarin on Production Performance and Some Carcass Characteristics of Broilers Consuming Aflatoxins 2022-12-31T16:09:56+00:00 A. A. M. Al-Kuhla <p>&nbsp;The current study aimed to know the extent of the effect of silymarin and its usefulness on the productive performance and some characteristics of the carcass of broilers which consuming diets containing aflatoxins which counteract the effects of negative toxins, which is&nbsp; One hundred and forty-four male broiler chicks, type (ROSS 308), one day old, of similar weights (40 + 5g), were distributed into four groups of equal number by 36 birds per group, which in turn was divided into three replicates by 12 birds for each duplicate. In the following figure, the first group (the control group), the second group (the standard diet plus aflatoxin in an amount of 500 micrograms/ kg of feed), the third group (the standard diet plus aflatoxin in an amount of 500 micrograms/ kg of feed in addition to 0.5 ml of silymarin per 1 liter of drinking water), the fourth group (the standard ration plus&nbsp; aflatoxin in an amount of 500 micrograms / kg of feed in addition to 1 milliliter of silymarin per 1 liter of drinking water). Ground culture was used on a deep litter, the experiment lasted for (35 days).</p> <p>During the trial period, the characteristics of the production performance for a period of five weeks were calculated, which are body weight, amount of feed consumed, weight gain rate, and feed conversion ratio. The results showed a mathematical and significant improvement in favor of the fourth group compared to the rest of the groups.</p> <p>On the last day of the experiment, five chicks were slaughtered from each replicate. The carcass characteristics were measured and the proportions of the following organs were studied: the pancreas, the gizzard, the liver, the spleen, the heart, and the stomach. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the four groups in most of the carcass characteristics, despite some slight improvement in some of the carcass characteristics.</p> <p>It is concluded from this study that adding silymarin to drinking water for groups of male broilers consuming aflatoxin may improve some of their productive characteristics.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon The Impact of Strategic Leadership on Entrepreneurial Performance An Analytical Study of the Opinions of a Sample of Administrative Leaders in The Union Company for Food Industries Ltd. in Babylon 2023-01-01T08:31:39+00:00 Zafar Nasser Hussain Muhannad Abdul Karim Sahib Jaber <p><strong>Introduction</strong></p> <p>Our current research seeks to measure the impact of leadership with its dimensions represented by (determining direction, investing and preserving core capabilities, developing human capital, promoting culture) a questionnaire a questionnaire on all measurements at various administrative levels, the chairman of the board of directors of the company, the executive director, the general manager, and the management of departments and divisions in Union Company for Food Industries Ltd In order to process this data and test the hypotheses, the researcher used a number of statistical methods, the most important of which are (the arithmetic mean, the standard deviation, the relative coefficient of difference, and the relative importance).</p> <p><strong>working methods</strong></p> <p>Using the analytical method to reach the results through the use of the questionnaire form and subjecting it to several statistical methods and tools through the SPSS statistical analysis program.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p> <p>It is clear from the results of testing the hypotheses of the study that there is a significant effect of the strategic leadership variable on the entrepreneurial performance at the level of the study sample company, and this indicates that the more the administrative leaderships in the study sample company pay attention to the dimensions of strategic leadership and follow strategic behaviors, the more they have an insight into the future and a vision It has a clear and deep understanding of the market dynamics, and it has the necessary expertise, skills, and capabilities to deal with environmental variables. The higher the level of entrepreneurial performance at the level of the study sample company, the greater its ability to achieve success.</p> <p>It was also clear from the results of testing the hypotheses of the study that there is a significant effect of the dimension of defining the strategic direction on the entrepreneurial performance, and this means that the study sample company paid more attention to defining its strategic direction clearly and formulating its strategy with high transparency, and the more its administrative leaders had a full understanding of the strategic process, the higher the performance its pioneer.</p> <p>The results of hypothesis testing showed that there is a significant effect of the investment dimension and the preservation of core capabilities in the entrepreneurial performance variable. Resources and expertise in order to build core capabilities and improve their outputs.</p> <p>From the results of testing the hypotheses of the study, it was found that there is a significant effect of the dimension of strengthening the organizational culture in the variable of entrepreneurial performance. Social, this is a matter of raising the level of his leadership performance.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Oral parasites and Its Associated with the Population Residency and Some Physiological Disorders Among Population in Erbil City. 2023-01-01T08:46:16+00:00 Hawri Hawar Mohammed Jabbary Narmin Rafiq Hamad <p>Background:<br>The parasitic infection may be caused by the parasites Trichomonas tenax and Entamoeba <br>gingivalis, which were included in this investigation. This studys goal is to estimation the <br>incidence the parasites in patients' oral cavities with associated of some factors like residency, <br>dental caries and diabetics in Erbil, Iraq.<br>Materials and Methods:<br>The current study comprised 354 patients in total. A questionnaire recorded residency (urban and <br>Rural), dental caries and diabetics. Calculi samples were taken by use of a sterile curette and were <br>placed in sterile collection vials, each containing 1 ml of sterile normal saline solution. Saliva <br>samples of the patients were collected in sterile vials, then dilution was done by addition of 1 ml <br>of sterile saline solution to each vial. Then each vial was labeled by patient’s number, name and <br>date of collection. The purpose of collection the calculi and saliva to search about the parasites in <br>the oral cavity. <br>Results:<br>The higher infection ratio of E. gingivalis in the rural regions in comparison with that of urban <br>areas (91.7% and 89% respectively), and the results discovered that the higher positive rate of E. <br>gingivalis (93.3%) was observed among those with dental caries and it was encountered in (86.8%)<br>of subjects free from dental caries, regarding diabetes, diabetes and the presence of E. gingivalis<br>were shown to have a statistically significant connection (97.1%) and (35.7%) infection rates of <br>E. gingivalis among diabetics and non-diabetic participitants respectively. While T. tenax was <br>more common in individuals with non-diabetes (12.2%) compare to the diabetics (9.5%), but no <br>relation was found.<br>Conclusion:<br>Infection with these parasites is relatively prevalent in people with dental caries, diabetics, and the <br>persons' environment. It appears that continuation of advices are important in regulator of parasitic <br>infection in Kurdistan Region of Iraq.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Study of Anatomical Description and Histological Structure of the kidney in Iraqi Birds. 2023-01-01T09:07:09+00:00 Isrra Adnan Auda Khadhim <p><strong>&nbsp;Background:</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>The current study aims to identify the morphological description and histological structure of kidney in bird. Morphologically the kidney consist of three lobes represented by the cranial, medial and caudal taking into account the difference in the shape and size of the lobes. <strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>According to histology, the kidney is surrounded in a delicate connective tissue capsule. The kidney's primary structural component is the lobule, which is made up of cortical and medullary tissue in each lobule. There are two parts to the kidney medulla and cortex. The cortex is larger than the medulla and has glomeruli, proximal convoluted tubules, and distal convoluted tubules, whereas the medulla has thin and thick segments of Henle's loop, collecting tubules, and collecting ducts.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>:</p> <p>&nbsp;The kidneys in Iraqi birds are morphologically and histologically different.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon An Accelerated Three Term Efficient Algorithm for Numerical Optimization 2023-01-02T06:08:51+00:00 Lajan J. Mohammed Ivan S. Latif <p>Background:</p> <p>A new optimization algorithm is presented. The method is biased with new non monotone line search an accelerated three term conjugate gradient method damped of Quasi Newton method&nbsp;&nbsp; compared to previews method design efficiency in provident of more than one factor&nbsp; for different optimization problem are&nbsp; more dramatic due to the ability of the technique to utile&nbsp; existing data.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>&nbsp;New monotone line search, new monotone line search, new modification of Damped Quasi-Newton method, Motivation and New Quasi-Newton Algorithm (MQ) and Global convergence.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>In this work, we have n tendency to compare our new algorithm with same classical strategies like <strong>[7]</strong> by exploiting of unconstrained nonlinear optimization problem the functions obtained from Andrei <strong>[5, 6]</strong> Waziri and Sabiu (2015)<strong>[10] </strong>and La couzetul (2004<strong>)[3]</strong>. The numerical experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. We selected seven relatively unconstrained problems with the size varies from 10 to 100. We consider the three sizes of each problem so that the total number of problem is 21 test problems. We stop the iteration when &nbsp; is satisfied&nbsp; All codes were written in Matlab R2017a and run on a pc with Intel COREi4 with a processor with 4GB of Ram and CPU 2.3GHZ we solved test problems using two different initial starting points.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>In this research article, a project on an accelerated three-term efficient algorithm for numerical optimization has presented the method as completely a derivative-free algorithm with less NOI and NOF and CPU time computed to the existing methods .using classical assumption the global convergence was also proved. Numerical results using the three terms efficient algorithm show that the algorithm is promising.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Settlement Improvement of Weak Soil of Natural Moisture Content by Using Geogrid Reinforcement Under Different Dynamic Load 2023-01-02T07:11:27+00:00 Sawsan J. Al-Alaei Raid Aziz Mahmod Aqeel Sh. Al-Adili <p>One of new method to improve the bearing capacity of weak soil is&nbsp; by using&nbsp; geosynthetic reinforcement materials that has become more common in past 40 years for a number of applications to reduce the cost of maintences by increasing design life. This study concerned with the behavior of weak soil and the amount of settlement that happened when the soil exposed to different weight load with different number of blows . Field and laboratory tests done to calculate soil settlement. For experimental tests a model with dimension (150×75×75cm) has been manufactured, clayey silty sand soil in model exposed to different dynamic weight by using load with ( 4.5kg), load with (7.5kg) and load with (10kg). Each load strick the soil with 9 5 and 10) blows during an experiment for each dynamic load. 12 Laboretory experiments were conductedon 38 test points, 6 experiments done on soil without geogrid and 6 experiments done on soil with geogrid that included 19 test point for each case.</p> <p>The experiments tests show that by increasing the weight load and increasing in number of blows settlement increase in both cases ( without and with geogrid). The experiments show that by using geogrid the settlement decrease comparison with the amount of soil settlement without geogrid. By using geogrid and exposed to weight loads ( 4.5, 7.5 and 10kg.) with No. of blows = 5 the average percent in settlement decrease 1.2, 2.1,1.7%) and with No. of blows =10 for the same loads the average percent of settlement decrease (1.8, 2.7, 2.7%).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Evaluation of the Regression Coefficient between the Activity of FoxP3 Gene on Regulatory T Cells and Glucose Level in Patients with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus In the City of Mosul 2023-01-08T10:29:08+00:00 Saad Imrrer Ali Rojan G.M. AL-Allaff <p>Still, external insulin therapy with its various types causes a variety of immune reactions through its variable control of the glucose level in patients with type 1 diabetes. However, major immune problems are uncommon, and less serious diabetic events have long-term effects on immune responses. The current study aimed to follow up the effect of glucose levels on the level of gene expression of the <em>FoxP3</em> gene, one of the most important genes responsible for the activity of Regulatory T cells in patients with type 1 diabetes. (26) blood samples were collected from individuals diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for a period of more than (5) years, their ages ranged from (15-35) years, and from both sexes, from Al-Wafa Center for the treatment of diabetics and endocrine glands in the city of Mosul. The patients were divided into four groups, depending on the type of insulin injection , These groups included (Actrapid patients group, Insulatard patients group, Insulatard / Actrapid patients patients group, and finally Mixtard patients group). The control group also included (7) blood samples of healthy people as donors, ages ranging from (15-30) years, (males and females), without communicable diseases, bacterial infections, or autoimmune diseases. . The results showed an effect of glucose concentration on the expression level of the <em>FoxP3</em> gene by (26%) in the group of patients who used insulin mixtard type, while the results of the effect analysis of glucose on the level of gene expression of the <em>FoxP3</em> gene showed a rate of (76%) in the group of patients who used insulin type Insulatard, On the contrary, there was no effect of glucose concentration on the level of <em>FoxP3</em> gene expression in patients using Actrapid and&nbsp; Insulatard / Actrapid insulin at (P≤0.05).</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon On the (τ^2,τ)-Arcs in PG(2,qq) for τ≤qq 2023-01-09T05:22:50+00:00 Mudhir A. Abdul Hussain <p>In this article the existence of the arcs in the projective plane of order &nbsp;has been proved. For &nbsp;we have shown that the arcs are complete. The existence of the completes (144,12)-arc in , (256,16)-arc in &nbsp;and - (324,18)arc in &nbsp;have been found.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Review on Common Steganography Techniques 2023-01-09T08:55:44+00:00 Noor Kadhim Ayoob Asraa Abdullah Hussein <p>Various authorities are keen to preserve the confidentiality of their information and protect it from competing or hostile parties who were also keen to access that information by all available means. Since the encryption of information is exposed as it produces incomprehensible texts that arouse suspicion, some tend to work in a way that removes suspicions by hiding the information in a medium like text or picture so that what is sent and circulated appears natural and free of signs or incomprehensible symbols as if not loaded with any additional information. This paper introduces a review the techniques used to hide data in images as one of the most common concealment techniques.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Restrict Nearly Semiprime Submodule 2023-01-18T09:09:51+00:00 Khudhayer O. Khadem Haibat K.Mohammad Ali <p>During this search all rings are commutative and all modules are unitary. In this search we introduced the concept of&nbsp; Restrict Nearly semi-prime Sub-modules as generalization of&nbsp; semi-prime Sub-modules and give some basic properties, examples and charactarizations of this concepts and stablished some sufficient conditions on Restrict Nearly semi-prime to be semi-prime</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Effect of Season on some Biochemical Components of The Ovarian Follicular Fluid in Local Iraqi Ewes 2023-01-31T09:26:27+00:00 Rajaa F. Al-Mamoori Raja' Muthanna Sabah Azzawi Alaa Abbas Fadhel <p>This study was conducted in the technical college of Mussaib / department of Animal Production Techniques to investigate the effect of season on some follicular fluid biochemical parameters in the ovaries of the- . Fifty ovaries were collected from Karbala and Najaf butcheries for two seasons: the first season (August 2021) and the second season (January 2022). Moreover, collected follicles were divided according to their sizes into three groups (first group &lt; 3 mm), (second group 3-5 mm), and (third group &gt; 5mm) The results showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) for protein, glucose, cholesterol, and sodium, and a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) for calcium in the first season compared to the second season, and the significant increase was (P ≤ 0.05) for potassium in the second season compared to the first season. As for the follicles sizes the result exhibited, there were highly significant differences in the size of the follicles for the first group (&lt; 3 mm ) P≤0.01, as it reached in the first season 8 (32.00%) and in the second season 13 (52.00%) and also found highly significant differences in the size of the follicles for the second group (3-5 mm) 11 (44.00%) in the first season and 6 (24.00%) in the second season (P≤0.01). for the follicles of the third group (&gt; 5mm), there were no significant differences, as it reached 6 (24.00%) in the first season and 6 (24.00%) in the second season. The groups also differed significantly within the same season. The highly significant increase for the second group was (P≤0.01) compared to the rest of the groups within the first season, while in the second season, the high significant increase was for the first group (P≤0.01) compared to the rest of the groups.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Solving Multi-Objective Linear Fractional Programming Problems by Novel Methods 2023-02-12T08:28:56+00:00 Snoor O. Abdalla Ronak M. Abdullah <p>In this paper, we suggested two new techniques for transforming multi-objective linear fractional programming problems into single-objective linear fractional programming problems (SOLFPP) and then solving them by methods of SOLFPP. Illustrative numerical examples are presented for demonstration purposes. Also, the obtained results are compared with another method studied previously.&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Production and Purification of Laccase enzyme by Trichoderma viride 2023-03-05T06:33:22+00:00 Liqaa Y. Mohsen Rafal Ahmed Lilo Zeena Hadi Obaid Alwan Ayad M.J Al-Mamoori <p>The ability of <em>Trichoderma viride</em> to synthesize extracellular enzymes (Lacase enzyme) using a substrate that contains media was examined. This isolate generated laccase at its greatest level (0.166U/ml) in liquid medium.&nbsp; This study was&nbsp; demonstrated the production, purification, and characterisation of the laccase enzyme from <em>T.viride</em>. The results showed that 96 hours was the optimum period of time for Laccase to incubate from this fungus. Laccase displayed the maximum level of activity at pH 4.5 and temperature 30 °C. The results revealed that the best ratio for laccase precipitation was 90%&nbsp; by using ammonium sulphate<em>.</em>&nbsp; In addition, for the purification of laccase enzyme, one peak of Laccase was appeared&nbsp; in gel filtration purified from <em>T.viride</em>, while 2 peaks of Laccase were seen in ion exchange chromatography. According to the findings, the molecular weight of <em>T. viride</em> Laccase using SDS-PAGE was roughly 66KD under denaturation conditions.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon