JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Ali AL Marzoqi) (information) Wed, 28 Sep 2022 08:06:29 +0000 OJS 60 Adaptive Indexing of Documents Using Genetic Algorithms and Relevance Feedback <p>Background:</p> <p>In this paper, the problem of retrieving the correct documents that satisfy the user's concerns is investigated. The main aim in information retrieval systems is to retrieve all and only relevant documents.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>The genetic algorithm is utilized to adapt and change the documents indexes, depending on relevance judgments collected from users. Genetic algorithm is a powerful tool that depends on the Darwinian principles and evolution techniques to search complex spaces. The use of genetic algorithm facilitates the adaptation of documents indexes. Sampling operation is performed using roulette wheel, roulette wheel with elitism and stochastic universal sampling. The fitness function is computed using Jaccard's coefficient that measure the closeness between query and document index.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The results show that the new descriptions are more efficient and closer to the population of users that use the information retrieval system. In addition, the stochastic universal sampling gave the best results.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>The keywords used to describe the content of documents have statistical dependencies among them. It is difficult to accommodate these dependencies in retrieval system. Genetic algorithm can consider these dependencies during its action. According to <strong><em>schema theorem</em></strong> and <strong><em>building block hypothesis</em></strong> [10], the fittest schemata are propagated from generation to generation, where they are sampled, recombined, mutated and resampled to form strings of potentially higher worth. Another aspect genetic algorithm can offer, is the reliance on the feedback provided by users of the retrieval system to adapt documents descriptions and selections variations were experimented with roulette sampling, with elitism, and with produce new set of descriptions closer to the population of users' needs.</p> <p>Three fitness proportionate selection variations are used, roulette wheel sampling, roulette wheel with elitism and &nbsp;stochastic universal sampling. The results have indicated the superiority of the third over the first two.&nbsp;</p> Tefool H. O. Al-khafaji , Ali Hasan Shaheed Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Molecular Techniques Used In the Detection of Fungi <p>Diagnostic microbiology has been transformed by molecular biological technologies for the characterization and identification&nbsp;of microorganisms, which are currently&nbsp;routinely used in specimen processing. The methods of&nbsp;Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) have paved the path for this new era through&nbsp;enabling for the quick detection of microorganisms which&nbsp;have been&nbsp;formerly&nbsp;impossible or difficult&nbsp;to detect using standard microbiological methods. Along with&nbsp;detecting fastidious microorganisms, pathogens of public health relevance may currently&nbsp;be detected more quickly using molecular techniques. Molecular approaches have presently&nbsp;evolved beyond identification for detecting&nbsp;antifungal resistance genes as well as providing&nbsp;public health information like&nbsp;genotyping strain characterization. The costs of molecular methods are reducing due to the introduction of multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, and advances in efficiency via automation, and the role of the molecular techniques&nbsp;will continue to grow.</p> Zahraa A.N. Al-Yassiry, Basheer Al-Alwani Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Square Wave Modulation in a Closed-Loop Semiconductor Laser with Optical Feedback <p>We achieve chaotic behavior in the dynamics of a semiconductor laser with ac-coupled optical feedback by experimentally applying a new modulating waveform to the bias current other than a pure sine wave. The embedding technic of the attracter and the quantitative bifurcation diagram analyze the duty cycle and phase effect. The dynamics become chaotic with the increasing values of the duty cycle, and it is chaotic in all values of phase change. Furthermore, the applied square wave modulation gives additional parameters to be tuned, which enhances the security level provided by a closed-loop semiconductor laser with optical feedback.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Banaz O. Rasheed Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Study of Cattle Infection with Giardia Parasite at Al-Kufa City, Al- Najaf Al-Ashraf. Iraq <p>A total of 82 adult cow, 24 adult calves , which their ages more than one year , and 38 female calves, 29 male calves which their ages less than one year , are examined during the period from August /2021 till Feb/2022 to detect their infection with Giardia parasite .Its found that 18 of the adult animals infected with cyst (16.98%) while 3 only infected with trophozoites (4.47%) . The animals that their ages less than one year exhibited less rate of infection (8.49% and 7.46% with cyst and trophozoite respectively). According to months of the year , August show the highest rate of infection especially among adult male animals and small female animals (40% and 50% respectively ) . The study recorded Giardia parasite in cattle's for the first time in Al-Kufa city , Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf .</p> Hussein Takheal Hussein, Haki abd Alabas Issa, Shatha Atta Abied, Mustafa Hussein Takheal Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in an Adult Dentate Najaf /Iraqi Population by Using Digital Panoramic Radiographs <p><u>Background:</u></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Studies were done across different populations showed a varying degrees of prevalence of dental anomalies. The present study was aimed to evalu­ate the dental anomalies prevalence for Najaf/Iraq population.</p> <p><u>&nbsp;Methods:</u></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; Analysis was done for the standard Orthopantomograph of 750 subjects with ages ranging between 18 and 40 years. The teeth and jaws were examined radiographically for number, size, structure, position, and shape of the teeth. In addition, the presence of pulp stone and radio-opaque dental anomalies in the jaw was also studied. Chi-squared test was carried for the data analysis.</p> <p><u>Results:</u></p> <p>&nbsp; The prevalence of dental anomalies was (32.8%).&nbsp; Anomalies in number of teeth was (4.19%), size (10%), structure (0%), position (50.33%), shape (27.74%), pulp stone (5.48%), and the jaws radio-opaque anomalies constitutes (2.26%). The most common type of dental anomalies was anomalies of tooth position, and 55.48% of dental anomalies were associated with the maxillary teeth, and 44.52% were associated with the mandibular teeth.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The supernumerary teeth, congenital missing teeth, transposition, dens evaginatus, and dens invaginatus were mostly associated with the upper incisors, while the displacement was mostly seen associated with the upper canines.&nbsp; Upper molars were mostly associated with pulp stone, fused roots and microdontia.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp; The supernumerary roots were mostly associated with lower premolars, while inversion, impaction, dilaceration, taurodontism, and enamel pearls are mostly associated with lower molars. All radio-opaque jaws anomalies were seen associated with the lower jaw only.</p> <p><u>Conclusion:</u></p> <p>&nbsp; The determination of prevalence of dental anomalies is important for the early diagnosis and treatment planning of patients.</p> Ameera Kamal Khaleel, Haider Mehdi Hamid, Mortada Mahmoud Nouri, Mahdi Emad Mahdi, Rasool Hammed Abbas, Youssef Mohamed Talib Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized from Euphorbia tirucalli L. Latex Extract: Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Assessment <p>Background:</p> <p>The fast production of silver nanoparticles utilizing plant latex extract from <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> L. is revealed in this study where the application of <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> latex extract in the green manufacture of Ag-NPS has been investigated as a reducing and stabilizing agent.</p> <p><em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> latex silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were investigated using UV-VIS Spectroscopy and produced a surface plasmonic resonance peak at 400 nm. The size of <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> AgNPs was determined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), which revealed nanoparticles ranging in size from ten to sixty nm, with average of 51.6 nm. The main significance of active functional groups in the reduction and stability of <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> AgNPs is revealed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).</p> <p>The well diffusion assay was also used to detect antibacterial activity at four concentrations 100, 50, 25, and10 μg/ml against Gram positive bacteria <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Enterococcus faecalis</em> and gram negative bacteria <em>Escherichia coli</em> and <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> as harmful microorganisms and the diameters of the prevention zone appeared varying according to the concentrations that were used. This research shows that employing a low-cost, environmentally acceptable extract as a major precursor in the manufacture of Ag nanoparticles is feasible and practicable, Finally, this supply of nanoparticles might be a very important industrial initiative in the search for innovative, safe, and cost-effective antibiotic alternatives.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>This study has been conducted in the advanced plant laboratory at the College of Science for women/ University of Babylon in cooperation with the laboratories of the Ministry of Industry and Minerals and AL-Ameen center for research and advance Biotechnology, AL-Najaf province to conduct some tests for the for the period from November 2020 to March 2021.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The current AgNP synthesis method, which uses latex extract as a reducing agent, completely eliminates the use of synthetic reducing agents. Latex is very good at producing very stable and biocompatible AgNPs, which might be useful in biomedical applications</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>The biosynthesis of <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> Ag-NPs was effectively accomplished in the current work using a green technique of manufacture that involved treating silver nitrate with latex extract of <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> solutions. The plant latex of <em>Euphorbia tirucalli</em> was shown to be a good stabilizing reducing agent for the production of AgNPs in this approach. The process used here is very basic, straightforward, low-cost, environmentally friendly, and a superior alternative to chemical synthesis. The resulting AgNPs are very stable and have good antibacterial activity.</p> Rula Dhahir Al-Jayid, Huda Jasim M. Altameme Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Leuciscus vorax Heckel, 1848 Fish as a New Host of Two Parasites, Crustacean Parasite Lamproglena chinensis and the Excysts Metacercaria Centrocestus formosanus Phase for the First Time in Iraq <p>It has been collect ten&nbsp; <em>Leuciscus vorax </em>Heckel, 1848&nbsp; fishes&nbsp; <em>&nbsp;</em>in the period&nbsp; from 15/6&nbsp; to&nbsp; 15/9, of the year 2020 C. from the Al-mashrooa river which connected to the Euphrates River at Al-Musaib region,&nbsp; and after dissection and examine the samples it have been isolate the crustacean&nbsp; parasite <em>Lamproglena chinensis</em> and the Excysts Metacercaria <em>Centrocestus formosanus </em>Phase from the gill and it’s isolation for the first time from this fish, then it regarded as a new hosts to the parasites above in Iraq.</p> Bashar Abdul-Hussain Al-Sa'adi1 Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Gene Sequencing of Hydatid Cysts isolated from Human and Sheep in Central Euphrates Provinces, Iraq <p><u>Background</u>:</p> <p>Hydatid cystic disease is one of the most prevalent zoonosis diseases between people and animals. It develops in several organs, the most significant of which is the liver and lung as a hydatid cyst in numerous hosts, including humans. It causes many complications that may result in death. There are no safe and efficient medicines for this parasite in use, and the research process is ongoing to find such treatments.</p> <p><u>Materials and Methods:</u></p> <p>During the period from November 2021 to May 2022, collected 18 samples of hydatid cysts (9 human samples and 9 sheep samples) were examined. DNA isolated from a germinal layer, and amplified of the product using the technique of PCR and sequenced in gene 18S rRNA Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS1) and (ITS2), which has a molecular weight of (1,100 and 750) base pairs. The studied samples were matched with the samples installed in the gene bank.</p> <p><u>Results:</u></p> <p>The results found that there were samples that matched the isolate of the gene bank with different percentages. Human Hydatid Cysts which chosen to draw the evolutionary tree, where the percentage of matching was 99 %.</p> <p><u>Conclusion:</u></p> <p>The presence of the parasite was verified by using the genes ITS1 and ITS2 and then drawing the evolutionary tree after matching the studied isolate with the isolate registered in the NCBI and the molecular techniques have significantly improved our comprehension of the variety and distribution of <em>E. granulosus.</em></p> Ridhab Mahmood ALhadidi, Ahmed Khudhair Al-Hamairy, Huda Jasim M. Altameme Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Toxicant and Predator Harvesting on a Predator-prey Model with Modified Leslie-Gower <p>In this paper, the effect of pollutant in environment on prey and predator species and predator harvesting is modeled using modified Leslie-Gower and nonlinear harvesting rate. Positivity and bounded of solution are proved, conditions which make the model permanent is determined, existence and locally asymptotically stable for each of possibly equilibrium point is studied, numerical solution of proposed model is done to show the effect and to confirm the analytical result.</p> <p> </p> Mediya Bawakhan Mrakhan, Shilan Fahmi Amin, Arkan Nawzad Mustafa Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Wed, 28 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Biometric Privacy Protection based on Combination of Hiding and Chaotic Encryption <p>With the expanded use of biometric systems, the safety of the biometric feature has become increasingly important. When biometric images are transferred through unsafe channels or stored as raw data, they become at risk of theft, forgery and attack. Data hiding is one of the main techniques of Privacy Protection. The goal of biometric data hiding is for adequate personal data is to be included in the cover of Biometrics and to maintain recognition performance. The paper idea introduces two levels of security based on hiding and encryption. The eye image is segmented into two regions Region of Interest (ROI) and Non-Region of Interest (NROI), The iris segmentation method depends on the Circular Hough Transform (CHT). The privacy data is embedded with NROI and then reassemble the image with ROI (iris) to get the embedding image. Then chaotic encryption is applied on the embedded image to get a high level of security. The experimental results are tested using the CASIA1 data set. The tests of hiding level are done using measurements such as PSNR and NC. The results show that the suggested method gives a higher value of PSNR which means not destroy the cover image and the value of NC is (1) which means a perfect reconstruction of secret data. The tests on encryption levels show good results using measurements such as histogram, correlation, and entropy.</p> Elaf Ali Abbood , Suhad A. Ali, Sheimaa A. Hadi Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Its Correlation with Antenatal Care and Parental Smoking in Babylon Province <p>Across sectional study was applied in Babylon teaching hospital for obstetric and children over six months period from April 2020 to September 2020 the study was done on 754 full term live birth neonate</p> <p>The birth wight and gestational age was taken for all newborn. The gestational age was calculated by last menstrual period and ultrasound examination and a new Ballard score. Full term is considered when the gestational age is ≥ 37 weeks</p> <p>Premature and infants with birth defects were excluded from the study</p> <p>Questionnaire was taken from mother whither attend ANC (antenatal care) or not and whither mother and father are smoker or not.</p> <p>The total number of low births weight was 69 from the total number full term which are 754 with a percentage of 9.2<strong>% </strong>and the number of large gestational age is 22 with a percentage of 2.9% . there is significant relationship between antenatal care and low birth weight with P-value &lt;0.001 and also significant relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight with P-value &lt;0.001. but there is no relationship with paternal smoking.</p> Ibrahim Munshed , Muder H. Noor Al-Aaraji, Haider Hasan Shakir Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Feed Restriction Programs with or without Organic Zinc and Peppermint Leaves Powders on Blood Immunological and Biochemical Indicators and Internal Organs of Broiler Chickens <p>This study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of quantitative and temporal feed restrictions with adding powders of peppermint leaves and organic zinc to the diet for the 2nd and 3rd week on some physiological, immunological and anatomical characteristics of broiler chickens Ross 308 up to 35 days of age. In total, 420 chicks were used, divided into 7 treatments, and each treatment included 3 replicates, with 20 chicks per replicate. The treatments were divided into the control (G1), quantitative feed restriction (40%) only (G2) or with addition of 1% peppermint leaves powder (G3) or with addition of 50 mg/kg of organic zinc powder (G4) and temporal feed restriction (12 hours/ day) only (G5) or with addition of 1% of peppermint leaves powder (G6) or adding 50 mg/kg of organic zinc powder (G7). The results obtained at 21 days of age and as compared with G1 indicated that there was a superiority (p&lt;0.05) of the treatments (G2, G3) and (G4 and G7) in the weight of pancreas and bursa of Fabricius, respectively, superiority (p&lt;0.05) in the&nbsp; most of the feed restrictions was in the relative weight of thymus gland with no significant difference was among the most of treatments in packed cells volume. Also, G3, G4 and G7 recorded a decrease (p&lt; 0.01) in uric acid level , but no significant difference was recorded among&nbsp; G3, G4, G6, G7 and G1 treatment in&nbsp; ALT activity. As compared with G1 at 35 days of age, G3 and G5 surpassed&nbsp; (p&lt;0.05) in lung weight, no significant difference among&nbsp; G2, G5, G6, G7 and G1 was in packed cells volume, a decrease in uric acid&nbsp; level (p&lt; 0.01) was in the most of feed restriction&nbsp; treatments&nbsp; and no significant difference was recorded among feed restriction treatments&nbsp; and G1 in ALT activity. The G3, G4 and G7 had the highest rate (p&lt;0.05) of antibody titers against Gumboro and Newcastle diseases, with no significant differences was among&nbsp; treatments in the absolute length of gut , heterophils/lymphocytes ratio, creatinine level and AST activity in the blood serum. We conclude that the application of feed restriction regimes had a positive role in stabilizing or improving the physiological parameters of blood, anatomical traits&nbsp; and enhancing immunity in broilers, especially in case of supporting the diet with peppermint leaves or organic zinc powder.</p> Karrar Imad Abdulsahib Al-Shammari, Amjed Mohsin Muhi Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 A Study of Electrical Properties of (PVA-PEG / RB) Composite <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In this study, (PVA-PEG-RB) composites were fabricated through the casting process with varying amounts of Rhodamine B (RB) dye (0, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, and 2 wt %). The findings revealed that the dielectric constant and dielectric loss of (PVA-PEG-RB) organic dye composite decrease when the applied electrical field frequency rises, whereas the dielectric loss increases as the organic dye additive concentration increases. The increase in frequency and concentration of the (RB) organic dye both contribute to an increase in the electrical conductivity. From the study the polymeric films have been prepared doped with organic dye have a suitable electrical property that can be using in optical applications such as optical limiting and solar fluorescent concentrates.</p> Alhak A.M. Hassan Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Association of Oxidative Stress with Parkinson's Disease, a Case-Control Study <p>Background:</p> <p>Epidemiological studies have proven that some environmental variables, such as exposure to industrially produced materials, usage of agricultural pesticides, or living in a rural area, increase the chance of acquiring Parkinson's disease (PD). It is thought that some environmental pollutants might be the cause of this illness. This was confirmed by the finding that harmful compounds like fungicides like Maneb and herbicides like Paraquat and Diquat selectively act on dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal area of the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that oxidative stress and inflammation are crucial factors in the progression of Parkinson's disease.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>In the present study, 44 blood samples (23 men and 21 women) were obtained from three governorates, namely Najaf Al-Ashraf, Babylon, and Baghdad. Of these, 24 samples (14 men and 10 women) were from Parkinson's disease patients, and 20 samples (9 men and 11 women) were from healthy, uninfected individuals. The serum levels of malondialdehyde, a compound that is a sign of oxidative stress that result from lipid peroxidation, were measured in both in infected and healthy people, and calculating the serum levels of reduced glutathione, which is the master of antioxidants in the body and helps to maintain the balance between oxidants and antioxidants substances.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>The Statistical results by t-test revealed that there was a significant (P&lt;0.05) increase in malondialdehyde concentration in Parkinson's disease patients compared to the control group, but that there was no significant difference (P&lt;0.05) in the levels of glutathione between patients and the control group, although There was no significant decrease in patients compared to the control group. The results showed that malondialdehyde levels increased with increasing age, and serum glutathione levels decreased insignificantly with age.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>According to the results of the current study, oxidative stress—represented by the production of free radicals—plays a significant role in generating Parkinson's disease by triggering lipid peroxidation via the development of the MDA complex and a reduction in antioxidants.</p> Raad Abbas Kadhim Copyright (c) 2022 JOURNAL of UNIVERSITY of BABYLON Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Classifying Three Stages of Cataract Disease using CNN <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Among the many diseases that affect the retina, a cataract. It is one of the most serious pharmacological public health issues in developing nations, it can develop without causing any symptoms. It is one of the prime reasons for blindness or blurred vision for senior citizens. Therefore, accurate and early detection of cataracts depending on the severity of the condition is required to preserve vision and prevent the global increase in blindness caused by cataracts. As with most of the diseases related to the eyes, treatments, and early diagnosis have been shown to prevent visual loss and blindness. Compared with the manual diagnostic methods, automated retinal analysis systems help save patients' time, vision and cost. Artificial intelligence-based cataract detection methods have gained a lot of attention in the scientific community. This research produces an efficient and robust method for the automatic diagnosis of cataract by using Convolution Neural Network (CNN) for detection and classification cataract grading automatically in fundus images. It used Adam optimizer and (ODIR) dataset to train the model. The suggested method beats state-of-the-art cataract detection systems with an average accuracy of 100 % for two classes (Normal, Cataract) ,96.9% for four classes (Normal, Mild, Moderate, Sever) according to experimental results.</p> <p>&nbsp;<u>Materials and Methods:</u></p> <p>Used Convolution Neural Network for detection and classification cataract grading automatically in fundus images.&nbsp;</p> <p><u>Results:</u></p> <p>The suggested method beats state-of-the-art cataract detection systems with an average accuracy of 100 %</p> <p>&nbsp;for two classes (Normal, Cataract) ,96.9% for four classes (Normal, Mild, Moderate, Sever) according to experimental results.</p> <p><u>Conclusion:</u></p> <p>The proposed network looked at different layers, activation functions, loss functions, and optimization algorithms in order to reduce computing costs while maintaining model accuracy. The proposed system used multi-image augmentation methods, then implemented the system on these augmented images to decrease the issue of overfitting and to improve the efficiency of the suggested system, as best accuracy obtained for classification 96.9 percent was get for fundus images which augmented of ODIR dataset, but only 94 percent when the system was applied to the original fundus images. When compared to other similar works, this system performed admirably. Because this approach was extremely cost- effective, accurate, and ophthalmologists, time-efficient were able to detect cataract more quickly and accuracy with fewer parameters and less computer power.&nbsp; In retinal fundus images, the suggested approach is able to detect cataract phases. The detection of cataract stages (mild, moderate, and severe) will be done by the DCNNs system.</p> Hind Hadi Ali, Ali Yakoob Al-Sultan, Enass Hamood Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 New Techniques of Weighted Sum Method for Solving Multi-Objective Geometric Programming Problems <p>Multi-objective geometric programming problem is a type of optimization problem that wildly used in engineering problems. Until now there are not many optimization techniques that can easily compute this type of optimization problem. In this paper, we proposed two new techniques with algorithms to optimize multi-objective geometric programming problems. We created the first technique by using the weighted sum method and Arithmetic mean, and by using the weighted sum method and geometric mean we produced the second technique. These two methods are used to convert multi-objective geometric optimization problems to single-objective geometric optimization problems Some examples are considered to illustrate the results. The results were compared with other common techniques used in solving multi-objective engineering optimization problems.</p> Ronak M. Abdullah, Hanar M. Rasul Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 New Techniques of Weighted Sum Method for Solving Multi-Objective Geometric Programming Problems <p>This study was conducted in the technical college of Mussaib / department of Animal Production Techniques to investigate the effect of season on some follicular fluid biochemical parameters in the ovaries of the-. Fifty ovaries were collected from Karbala and Najaf butcheries for two seasons: the first season (August 2021) and the second season (January 2022). Moreover, collected follicles were divided according to their sizes into three groups (first group &lt; 3 mm), (second group 3-5 mm), and (third group &gt; 5mm) The results showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.01) for protein, glucose, cholesterol, and sodium, and a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) for calcium in the first season compared to the second season, and the significant increase was (P ≤ 0.05) for potassium in the second season compared to the first season. As for the follicles sizes the result exhibited, there were highly significant differences in the size of the follicles for the first group (&lt; 3 mm) P≤0.01, as it reached in the first season 8 (32.00%) and in the second season 13 (52.00%) and also found highly significant differences in the size of the follicles for the second group (3-5 mm) 11 (44.00%) in the first season and 6 (24.00%) in the second season (P≤0.01). for the follicles of the third group (&gt; 5mm), there were no significant differences, as it reached 6 (24.00%) in the first season and 6 (24.00%) in the second season. The groups also differed significantly within the same season. The highly significant increase for the second group was (P≤0.01) compared to the rest of the groups within the first season, while in the second season, the high significant increase was for the first group (P≤0.01) compared to the rest of the groups</p> Rajaa F. Al-Mamoori , Muthanna Sabah Azzawi, Alaa Abbas Fadhel Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Feeding Pellets Containing Different Concentrate to wheat Straw Ratios on the Rumen Fermentation Characteristics of Awassi Lambs <p>This study was carried out in Alsiyahii area– Babylon Province to investigate the effect of feeding Awassi lambs different ratios of concentrate: wheat straw (C: R) on rumen fermentation characteristics. Five pellets of total mixed rations (TMR) containing 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 of C: R ratios were prepared and offered to lambs ad libitum. Results revealed that increasing C: R ratio was associated with a significant (P&lt;0.01) reduction in pH, lower values of 6.60, 6.50 and 6.53 were recorded in samples of rumen liquor collected from lambs fed pellets containing C: R ratios of 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30, respectively. Those samples were also characterized with lower (P&lt;0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen, 4.85, 4.45 and 4.38 mg/100 ml, and higher (P&lt;0.01) concentration of total volatile fatty acids.&nbsp;</p> Haider A. M. Al-Husseini , Ali A. Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of Feeding Pellets Containing Different Concentrate to Wheat Straw Ratios on the Blood Parameters of Awassi Lambs <p>This study was carried out to investigate the effect of feeding Awassi lambs different ratios of concentrate: wheat straw (C: R) on blood parameters. Five pellets of total mixed rations (TMR) containing 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 of C: R ratios were prepared and offered to lambs ad libitum. The results showed that increasing the C: R ratio significantly (P&lt;0.01) increased the blood glucose. Higher concentration, 75.38 and 75.59 mg/100 ml were recorded in blood samples withdrawn from lambs fed on pellets containing 60:40 and 70:30 of C: R ratios respectively. similarly, those blood samples were characterized with higher (P&lt;0.01) concentrations of total protein and triglycerides. With regard to urea nitrogen, higher (P&lt;0.01) concentration, 44.15, 42.68 and 44.98 mg/100 ml were detected in blood samples withdrawn from lambs fed pellets containing 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30, respectively.</p> Haider A. M. Al-Husseini, Ali A. Saeed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of University of Babylon Fri, 30 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0000