JOURNAL OF UNIVERSITY OF BABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>J</strong>OURNAL of <strong>U</strong>NIVERSITY of <strong>B</strong>ABYLON for Pure and Applied Sciences, (<span style="color: #008000;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong></span>) is an official journal of the University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences in Iraq established in 1995.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;"><strong>JUBPAS</strong> is a scientific peer-reviewed open access journal publishing high-quality research and review papers at the forefront of modern research describing significant developments in Pure and Applied Sciences.</span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Online ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>2312-8135</strong></span></a></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;" align="justify"><span style="font-size: 12pt;">Print ISSN:&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><span style="color: #3366ff;"><strong>1992-0652</strong></span></a></span></p> en-US (Prof. Dr. Ali AL Marzoqi) (information) Sun, 11 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Incidence of Miscarriage in Pregnant Women due to TORCH Co-Infection in Erbil City/ Iraq <p><strong>Background: </strong>TORCH infections in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, intrauterine growth retardations and congenital anomalies. TORCH infections caused by <em>Toxoplasma gondii</em>, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus, and these organisms can transmit from mother to fetus through the placenta. The study aimed to investigate TORCH infection in pregnant women.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional and analytical study was conducted on 268 pregnant women (21-45 years) with miscarriage history. Blood samples were taken from all participants for screening TORCH infection. The screening was performed via Cobas e411 and using ROCH test kits manufactured by ROCH Company, Germany.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong><em>Toxoplasma gondii</em> was found in the highest percentage of TORCH infection (45.1%), followed by Cytomegalovirus CMV (21.6%), then Rubella (18.3%), which was found in the lowest percentage of infection. Non-significant differences were observed among age groups concerning Toxoplasmosis and Rubellosis, but significant differences were observed with CMV infection. Toxoplasma infections were observed with a high rate of infection (61.2%) in house wife, but there were no significant differences in Rubella and CMV infection based on occupation. The highest rate of toxoplasmosis (63.6%) was recorded in the first trimester of gestational age, with a significant difference, whereas there were no significant differences between gestational age with Rubella and CMV infections. Correlation was recorded between toxoplasmosis and the number of miscarriages with the highest rate (68.9%) in the number of miscarriages, whereas a non-significant correlation was recorded between Rubella or CMV infection and the number of miscarriages.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> In TORCH infection, Toxoplasmosis are observed in high rate (45.1%) among pregnant women suffered from previous miscarriages, and significant correlation between toxoplasmosis and the number of miscarriages was found but this correlation was non-significant with Rubella and CMV infection.&nbsp;</p> Safin Tahsin Kakayi, Hangaw Omer Haji, Ahmed Akil Khudhair Al-Daoody Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Internal Control and Auditing and their Role in Improving the Quality of Financial Reports from The Viewpoint of the Auditors in the General Directorate of Education in the Holy Karbala Governorate <p><strong>The aim of this research is to study and monitor the effectiveness of human resources in the holy province of Karbala, analyzing the research based on the descriptive analytical method, in identifying and addressing the research variables. They are looking for a questionnaire to gather information. You were a sample of the employees of the Internal Control and Audit Division in the province of Karbala, and enable them to choose the way they work in a story (preparation); for the education of holy Karbala, there is no relation to the indication of internal documentation (control environment, risk assessment) and the quality of financial reports of the Directorate General of Research.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> Hasan Hadi Jahil Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Behavior of Solution of Singularly Perturbed Difference Equations with Quadratic Small Parameter <p>In this paper we introduced a new asymptotic solution of&nbsp; system of singularly perturbed difference equations with quadratic small parameter . We study a behavior of asymptotic&nbsp; solution with certain cases , also we constructed the general solution of this problem. We obtained a formula for the terms of expansion solution, finally illustrated examples are given in this paper.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Abbas Traad Hammod , Methaq Hamza Geem Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Resveratrol: Properties, Sources, Production and Their Medical Applications A Review <p>Background:</p> <p>Resveratrol(RVS) was described at first by Takaoka in 1939 as a bioactive part in the Veratrum grandiflorum plant roots.</p> <p>Materials and Methods:</p> <p>RVS a (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) a natural phenols which were founded in over than seventy plants, especially in grapes' skins and seeds, red wines and other human nourishments. The double bond of RSV has been&nbsp; synthesized by a Wittig condensation. While, bioproduction is launched from phenylpropanoid acid having cinnamic and 4-coumaric acids which were derived from amino acids. RSV over and over deferred the rate of infections, for example, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular sickness, diabetes type 2, malignancy and neurodegenerative illnesses.</p> <p>Results:</p> <p>Most of the studies dealt with RSV as an antioxidant and treatment for oxidative damage that causes damage in vivo, such as diabetes, neurodegeneration, heart disease, cancer and aging. RSV is several known for its powerful scavenging efficiency.</p> <p>Conclusion:</p> <p>In this research, sources,production and features of RSV are included as well as the previous data that was reviewed that dealt with the use of RSV as a therapeutic substance for managing aging skin, cancer treatment, diabetes, blood pressure and brain support</p> Anaheed H. Hameed, Shemaa A. Soud , Maysaa A. Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Estimations of Depth to Magnetic Contacts and Dykes of Extended Areas in a Typical Southwestern Basement Terrain Using Aeromagnetic Data <p>Aeromagnetic data of an extensive area covering sheets 243 and 244 (Ilesa-Ado-Ekiti) from the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency (NGSA) were subjected to data enhancement filters and thereafter profiled into eleven (11)&nbsp; lines and interpreted quantitatively using forward modeling method to estimate depths to magnetic dykes and contacts of all lines. The profile depths solution revealed depths to dykes ranged from 209 – 494 m and depths to contact ranges from 35 – 498 m. Also, Euler De-convolution solution of structural index one (1) used to model dykes revealed depths ranging from 177-4389.8 m while Euler De-convolution of structural index 0.5 used to model contacts revealed depths ranging from 162-3262.8 m. Lastly, the Local Wave Number (LWN) result showed that depths to the magnetic contacts ranges from 277.2-4529.7m and which resolved best for deepest seated contact. The results obtained from this work are vital information for recognition of geological features such as contacts and dykes.</p> M.I. Lateef, S.O. Sedara, O.O. Alabi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Agro- Industrial Integration from an Accounting Perspective Study in General Company for Leather Industries/Baghdad <p>The General Company for Leather Industries is an economic production unit that contributes to supporting the national economy in the field of manufacturing natural leather and exploiting it by producing clothes, shoes and bags based on the principle of economic account and efficiency of investing public funds and its effectiveness in achieving the objectives of the state and raising the performance levels of the national economy in order to achieve the goals of development plans, so the goal of the research is to identify the obstacles facing the General Company for Leather Industries / Baghdad (research sample) which transforms Without agricultural industrial integration with its animal branch and orientation towards imported leather to achieve its objectives despite the existence of tanning factories in the same company through a cost comparison of the product in case of dependence on local leather and application of agricultural industrial integration on the one hand and in case if the skins imported by another and four models of men's shoes (7566,7639, 6730,7545) contained in the company's records in October 2014, and one of the most important findings of the research is that there are many obstacles to agricultural industrial integration that need real solutions from the state and that its application does not achieve The company's objectives of</p> Huda Jabbar Kazim Al Hayali, Kasim Ali Imran Al Bayati, Mohammed Naser Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 On g-Transformation <p>In this paper, we introduce a new integral transformation, say g-transformation and is defined as follows:</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Which consider generalized of most known integral transformations and also it can be find a new special integral transformations. We have studied the properties of this transformation. We have presented the general formula of&nbsp; g-transformation for the derivative of functions in higher orders. We also clarified the relationship between this transform and some known integral transformations such as the Laplace Transform [3], Carson transformation and Sunudu transformation [5]. We introduce new result of shifting theorem.</p> Yusra Gatea Abbood AL-Ameri, Methaq Hamza Geem Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Assessment of Prevalence and Risk Factors of Obesity in Pediatric Age Group Between (5-15) years. <p><strong>Background.</strong></p> <p>Obesity is defined as age- and sex-specific body mass index (BMI) at or above 95th percentile, it is one of the more pressing public health problems today. The common classification of weight is based on body mass index (BMI), calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters (kg/m2). We try to explain and limit the serious sequelae of this problem. Aim of study, determine the risk factors for obesity and its prevalence in childhood (5-15 years).</p> <p><strong>Patients and Methods:</strong></p> <p>Cross sectional study, from 1st of April 2017 to end of January 2018. Clusters of 1044 children aged 5 -15 years from primary and secondary schools, kindergarten and children admitted to the ward in Al-Diwaniya&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; were surveyed, excluding endocrine diseases and those using medications like steroid. Data on age, gender, height and weight, to determine BMI, has been measured in this study.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong></p> <p>The overall prevalence of obesity in the current study is 16.57 %, also we determined some of risk factors of obesity and we found that obesity has significant association with family history, residence and dietary habit of the child.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p> <p>The study determined the overall prevalence of obesity which is 16.57%, also we determined family history, residence and dietary habit as significant risk factor for obesity in childhood.</p> Yahya Al - Tufaily , Rana Ibrahim, Fadhil Sahib Hassnawi Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Crystal and Molecular Structure of Tris- acetylacetonate with Lanthanum (III) Metal Ion Complex <p>The used ligand&nbsp; Acetylacetone is often abbreviated (acac), complex was isolated as pale yellow crystals from the reaction of La(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>3</sub>.6H<sub>2</sub>O metal salt with&nbsp; Acetylacetone at room temperature .The molecular formula of tris(acetylacetonatodiaqua)lanthanum(III) complex elucidated by the XRD, i.r&nbsp; and&nbsp; UV-Visible techniques .The La<sup>3+</sup> is&nbsp; linked&nbsp; by eight&nbsp; oxygen donor atoms of three&nbsp; acetylacetone anions that behaves as bidentate ligands, and two oxygen donor atoms of water molecules acting as monodentate ligand. In&nbsp; this research&nbsp; (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> ) didn’t participate in coordination&nbsp; despite the use of the&nbsp; La<sup>3+</sup>nitrate&nbsp; salt type of the metal&nbsp; , while in other similar researches nitrate ion linked with two oxygen atoms acts as a bidentate ligand. The geometrical structure of the metal chelate was distorted cubic.</p> Kamaran Basheer Hussein Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Proposal and Evaluation Method to Reduce Loops to Congestion Avoidance in Ad Hoc Networks <p>Congestion is the most important problem for private networks, one of this problem is the formation of routing rings when an error occurs in the operation of the routing algorithm between a set of nodes and the path to a particular destination is a loop that leads to cut the connection.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; In the present research we try to limit the formation of guidance rings and avoid congestion by proposing and evaluating the LLD and LMR methods to reduce the Interim loops. The foundation has been given a rationale for the loop prevention performance, and each methods was simulated using the program&nbsp; Qualnet 4.5&nbsp; for simulation&nbsp; ad hoc network.</p> Nada Badr Jarah Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Studying the Efficiency Dependence of CR-39 Detector on the Chamber Height <p>The response of CR-39 plastic detector was computed practically taking into account the most significant parameter of chamber height that effect on efficiency of CR-39. The aim of this project is to calculate the sensitivity of a CR-39 detector in a diffusion chamber for radon measurements using various chamber heights like, (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) cm. The obtained results revealed that the CR-39 detector's response for the chamber height of (10) cm is about 2 or 3 times higher than that of (15, 20, 25 and 30) cm, this is due to at the small height the concentrations of thoron (<sup>220</sup>Rn) will be mixing with the concentration of <sup>222</sup>Rn.</p> Kamal O. Abdullah Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Biochemical Testing Revision For Identification Several Kinds of Bacteria <p><u>Abstract:</u></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Bacteria are pathogenic germs that cause a variety of diseases in humans, ranging from minor to life-threatening. Proper detection of the disease-causing bacterial agent is required for proper treatment of patients affected with these disorders.</p> <p>Bacteria are classified into two groups: Gram Positive Bacteria and Gram Negative Bacteria. Both types of bacteria have a variety of inherited biochemical traits that allow us to distinguish them, check for their presence and absence, and determine whether they are gram negative or gram positive. As a result, the current review focuses on describing many biochemical assays in a single piece.</p> <p><strong><u>Conclusion</u></strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Gram positive bacteria are identified using biochemical tests such as the catalase test, coagulase test, starch hydrolysis test, and nitrate test, while Gram negative bacteria are identified using biochemical tests such as the oxidase test, urease test, indole test, sulfur test, and methyl red /voges-proskauer test. The analytical profile index test 20E was created to distinguish between Gram-negative Enterbacteriacea and non-Enterbactriacea bacteria. Gram-positive microbes such as Staphylococcus species, Micrococcus species, and other related organisms have also been generated using the API method.</p> Ban Mahmood Shaker AL-Joda , Aziz H. Jasim Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determining the Natural Radioactivity Level of Soil Samples from Halabja City <p>The samples of soil were collected from 7 locations in Halabja city, in February 2019. The natural radioactivity of the soil samples has been studied using High Pure Germanium (HPGe) detection system. The activity concentration (A<sub>s</sub>) of the natural series; <sup>238</sup>U, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K was determined for the samples. The values of A<sub>s</sub> were ranged (45.641 ± 3.252 - 92.862 ± 4.295), (61.287±2.996 - 135.773 ± 18.366) and (227.9 ± 4.874 - 413.0±7.060) Bq k<sub>g</sub><sup>−1</sup>, respectively. The radium equivalent activity (????<sub>(</sub><sub>????????</sub><sub>)</sub>) was determined with range (52.006 – 130.518) Bq kg<sup>-1</sup>. The total absorbed dose rate (????) calculated from the activity concentration of <sup>226</sup>Ra, <sup>232</sup>Th and <sup>40</sup>K in the studied area ranges from 25.53 nGy h<sup>-1</sup> to 58.921 nGy h<sup>-1</sup>. The calculated values of total annual effective dose&nbsp; (????<sub>????????????</sub>) for the soil samples of the study area ranged from 0.156 to 0.361. Since these values are less than unity, the EC report (European Commission, radiation protection report) concludes that the soil from these areas is healthy and poses no substantial radiological risk to the population.</p> Kamal O. Abdullah, Adel M. Hussien , Oday K. Azzawi , Shalaw Zrar Sedeeq Copyright (c) 2021 Thu, 01 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determine the Best and the Worst Solutions of Multi - Objective Linear Fractional Programming Problems with Interval Coefficients <p>&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;In this paper, the Multi-objective linear fractional programming problems with interval coefficients (MOLFPPIC) is considered. The aim of this paper is to show an iterative procedure that can be utilized to solve such problems. Questions of how to select the (best, worst) value for the objective functions, the nonlinear problem is changed into a linear programming problem (LPP), with two or more constraints and more than one varieties by two algorithms (1) subtracting the interval of numerator of the fractional from the interval of denominator and (2) the denominator to be one of the constraints. Finally, after we solve each objective function without intervals individually by modified simplex method, we use a new technique via transforming it to single-objective function with the same constraints. Numerical examples are illustrated to show the efficiency of these algorithms and new technique.</p> Ronak M. Abdullah, Sazgar M. Salh Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Economics of Water Security and Achievement of Sustainable Development in Iraq (Analysis and Evaluation) <p>Water Security is a central environmental issue at the global level for financial, political and health consequences in the economies of developing countries the , Water crises are a global problem with long-term economic repercussions and an unbalanced conflict between the supply and demand sides of the water, which leads to imbalance in the water balance structure and consequently in water policies , using virtual water and footprint water &nbsp;dealing with water as an economic commodity rather than a free one. The analysts and economic researchers call the third millennium water era instead of the era of oil that characterized the previous years. The research concluded that, in economic terms, water is expected to become a commodity sold and bought as any economic commodity Water security should be studied from the point of view of the water problem. The first one is related to climate variables, the other to the mismanagement and planning of water resources and third regional because the water sources originate from outside the Iraqi borders. Finally, the research recommends the need to move away from linking water with political positions and politics because politics is a changing world.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Amina Abdul-Elah Hamdoon Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Effect of COVID-19 Pandemic upon People's Life Aspects: An Overview Study <p>Coronaviruses are a broad strain that includes a group of viruses which may cause a respiratory diseases ranging in severity from common colds to more severe diseases that lead to death. Recently in China, the emerging disease Covid-19 was discovered, which causes a range of symptoms such as fever, dry cough, fatigue, aches and pains, headaches, nasal congestion and loss of taste or smell. The new Corona disease (COVID-19) has forced the entire world to face one of the most difficult challenges in contemporary history, as this virus has infected millions and killed hundreds of thousands of people in various age groups. It is a grave mistake to describe this challenge as a health crisis only. It is a pandemic large-scale humanitarian crisis that is leading to the misery and suffering of all humankind and pushing its social and economic well-being to the brink of collapse</p> Maryam Abd Al-Kareem, Mohammed Talib Abed, Hayder Mohammed Copyright (c) 2021 Sun, 01 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Using a Fault Tree Technique to a System Safety Analysis <p>In this paper a fault tree technique is used as a system safety analysis, it is a top-down deductive analysis structured in terms of events rather than components. For analysis system safety gates and rules of Boolean algebra are applied to determining cut sets which represents quantitative and qualitative analysis with illustrative examples.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>1.The use of&nbsp; FT technique determines the minimal cut sets of systems which in term is very useful in lowering the maintenance cost for the aim of the safety to make empty from hazards.</p> <ol start="2"> <li class="show">We can find the reliability of any system and identify the risk areas for that system and through them we can determine the integrity of the system.</li> <li class="show">The most important and commonly used tools of evaluating system reliability is the fault tree method, which can be used to find and analyze the integrity of the system as it gives more accurate and reliable results.</li> </ol> Ali Salman Abdulkadhim Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Speeded Up Robust Features Descriptor for Iris Recognition Systems <p>Biometric systems have gained significant attention for several applications. Iris identification was one of the most sophisticated biometrical techniques for effective and confident authentication. Current iris identification system offers accurate and reliable results based on near- infra -red light (NIR) images when images are taken in a restricted area with fixed-distance user cooperation. However, for the color eye images obtained under visible wavelength (VW) without cooperation between the users, the efficiency of iris recognition degrades because of noise such as eye&nbsp;blurring&nbsp;images, eye lashing, occlusion and reflection. This works aims to use Speeded up robust features Descriptor (SURF) to retrieve the iris's characteristics in both NIR iris images and visible spectrum. This approach is used and evaluated on the CASIA v1and IITD v1 databases as NIR iris image and UBIRIS v1 as color image. The evaluation results showed a high accuracy rate 98.1 % on CASIA v1, 98.2 on IITD v1 and 83% on UBIRIS v1 evaluated by comparing to the other methods</p> Mohammed A. Taha, Hanaa M. Ahmed Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Monthly Changes in the Rate and Severity of Intrusive Perforated in Dactylogyrus on Common Carp Fish Cyprinus Carpio Live Stock in One of the Floating Cages in Alforat River at Al-mussaib, Babylon, Iraq. <p>Examined in the period, between August 2020 to January 2021 atotal of 97 fishes common carp from one of fish cages from Alforat River in Al-Mussayab city, Babylon, Iraq. These fishes species were examind for Dactylogyrus vastator. Parasites recorded included six species, <em>Dactylogyrus arquatus, D. simlex, D. dogieli, D. minutus, D. extensus, D. vastator. </em>The percentage incidence of infection with the studied Dactylogyrus varied according to different months.</p> <p>The present study included the determination of monthly changes in the main physical and chemical features of the water of River in this study water temperature of water River ranged from 10.4-13.5 Cᵒ, dissolved oxygen from 7.9-9.2 mg/L. PH ranged&nbsp; from 7.0-7.6, salinity ranged from 0.29-0.5/ ppt and the transparency ranged from 58-94 cm. the whole changes in the physical and chemical features of the waters of River were within the normal ranges tolerable by the common carp.</p> Hussein Takheal Hussein, Shatha Atta Abied, Haki abud Alabas Issa, Maryam Hussein Takheal Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Free Tournaments <p>In this research, we consider finite binary relations, and study their morphology, assuming that certain isomorphism types do not occur under restriction.</p> Nihad AbdeL Jalil, Ali Mahdi Abd Ali Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of University of Babylon for Pure and Applied Sciences Wed, 01 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000