Main Article Content
The circumstances of the Cold War forced Washington's administration in 1947 to set up a new intelligence body at the level of the challenges of that war, which would appear to go beyond the use of conventional military weapons to other political, economic and media-psychological weapons. These weaponsare primarily based on the state's intelligence capability, which the White House administration realized when it discovered that it was too late to obtain the necessary information to refine its political decisions, and realized that it was incapable of knowing not only the Soviet Union, but also its ally Britain. The presidential order was issued due to the creation of a Soviet-British intelligence agency.
The CIA was established independently of all ministries and directly related to the president. This was the reason for the differences between them and the sovereign ministries, especially foreign affairs and defence, which hindered the Agency's work initially. The Agency could not get rid of that differences, but it did during the reign of President Eisenhower, who had administrative and intelligence experience made him overcome the barrier by appointing the two brothers Dallas in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the presidency of the Agency in order to cooperate.The role of the agency in President Truman's policy was not impressive, but it was unimpressive to the sovereign ministries, because the agency did not get the president's confidence in drawing and defining the political bases, but (as he sees it)the Agency was only to supply information; therefore, the Agency did not succeed in most of its work except for the implementation of the Marshall Plan.In the Eisenhower era, the agency became the main actor in drawing and defining the political foundations as well as the implementation. It played a prominent role in the policy of emancipation and the formulation of its methods, and then implemented it beyond the work of the information dimension to other theoretical and practical dimensions.